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toughening

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article describes the dispersed-phase toughening of thermoset matrices by the development of multiphase-structure thermosetting matrices using rubber and/or thermoplastic materials. It discusses two main methods for manufacturing prepregs, namely, single-pass impregnation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002418
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the zone Fig. 3 The effect of crack length on the strengths enabled by transformation toughening Fig. 4 A schematic indicating the dissipation that occurs with a bridging zone. (a) Ductile ligaments. (b) Brittle reinforcements Fig. 5 A debond diagram for brittle reinforcement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of composite failure mechanisms such as thermoplastic-matrix composite failure mechanisms, untoughened thermoset-matrix composite failure mechanisms, toughened thermoset-matrix composite failure mechanisms, dispersed-phase and rubber-toughened thermoset-matrix composite failure mechanisms, and particle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... transfer molding, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding, and resin film infusion. It explains the composite- and matrix-toughening methods for fiber-reinforced composites, such as dispersed-phase toughening and interlayer toughening. The article concludes with information on optical microscopy, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... on ceramics. It provides a discussion on room-temperature fatigue crack growth in monolithic ceramics, transformation-toughened ceramics, and ceramic composites under cyclic compression. The cyclic damage zones ahead of tensile fatigue cracks, crack propagation under cyclic tension or tension-compression...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., including fillers, adhesion promoters, tackifiers, and tougheners. It gives a short note on functions of primers and primerless bonding. Applications of adhesives in automotive, aerospace, electronics, electrical, medical, sports, and construction sectors are also described. Finally, the article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... conductivity measured at 800 °C (1470 °F). Fig. 1 Toughening mechanisms that can be activated in a discontinuously reinforced ceramic-matrix composite. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 2 Mechanisms of fiber debonding, crack bridging, and fiber pullout as a result of crack propagation within...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... toughness limited its use in structural applications. The birth of toughened ceramics coincided with industrial applications requiring high-temperature capability, high strength, and an improvement in fracture resistance over existing ceramic materials. The primary driving force toward developing toughened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... , in Toughening of Plastics , Plastics and Rubber Institute , London , 1978 , p 24 16. Hertzberg R.W. , Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials , 4th ed. , Wiley , 1996 17. Anderson T.L. , Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications , CRC Press , 1995...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., CMC, and cemented carbide materials when machining Inconel 718 (feed of 0.2 mm/rev; depth-of-cut of 2 mm). Source: Ref 8 Fig. 6 Scanning electron micrograph of high-purity zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) showing dispersed ZrO 2 phase (white) within an Al 2 O 3 matrix Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... toughened) 36–50 80–110 Telecommunications or satellites, primary structures, structural syntactic cores, radomes, adhesives Phenol triazine PT-30, 60 Viscous liquid or semisolid amorphous 27–34 60–75 High-temperature applications: wet winding, carbon-carbon, ablatives Data courtesy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Behavior of Polymers , Elsevier , 1983 28. Yee A.F. and Pearson R.A. , “Toughening Mechanisms in Elastomer Modified Epoxy Resins,” NASA Contractor Report 3718, 1983 29. Yee A.F. and Pearson R.A. , “Toughening Mechanisms in Elastomer Modified Epoxy Resins, Part 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... those measured with long cracks. This sensitivity to crack length is a consequence of the mechanisms used to toughen ceramics (e.g., grain bridging in the crack wake), which are extrinsic in nature. Fatigue crack growth of long cracks in toughened ceramics results as the toughening mechanism breaks down...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are introduced, such as debonding at the fiber-matrix interface, crack deflection, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout. These toughening mechanisms can lead to damage-tolerant behavior, as shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Stress-strain behavior of reinforced and unreinforced ceramics. Fiber reinforcement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... and Dawihl W. , Ceramic Hip Endoprostheses , Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials , Hastings G.W. and Williams D.F. , Ed., John Wiley & Sons , 1980 , p 113 – 127 10. Evans A.G. and Cannon R.M. , Toughening of Brittle Solids by Martensitic Transformations , Acta...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.../app.1995.070560906 38. Rimnac B.M. , Wright T.W. , and Klein R.W. , Polym. Eng. Sci. , Vol 28 , 1988 , p 1586 10.1002/pen.760282403 39. Huang B.D. , in Toughened Plastics I: Science and Enginering , Riew C.K. and Kinloch A.J. , Ed., Vol 233 , p...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of these materials play a significant role in the microcracking behavior of the cured composite, along with the formed interphase during cure ( Ref 3 ). Composite matrices are often toughened, which can increase the stress level that is necessary to initiate microcracking. The location of the toughness modifiers...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... , 1980 , p 875 10.1007/BF00552097 10. Baldoni J.G. et al. , Particulate Titanium-Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites , Institute of Physics Conference Series No. 75, Adam Holger , 1986 , p 427 11. Lange F.F. , Transformation Toughening , J. Mater. Sci. , Vol 17 , 1982...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... systems in the context of the transformation-toughening mechanism. Application of the phenomenological theory of martensite transformations to partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) has led to the determination of the habit plane, orientation relationship, and shape strain for this system ( Ref 27...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fracture surface indicative of nonlinear, energy-absorbing stress-strain behavior (good toughening behavior of CMCs); 0°/90° laminate Nicalon fiber reinforced calcium aluminosilicate (CAS) glass-matrix composite. Source: Ref 4 Fig. 4 Flat, nearly featureless fracture surface indicative...