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tough-matrix composite failures

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... environmental attack. The silicon bond coat serves two equally important functions in current state-of-the art EBCs: enhancement of adhesion to the ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) and oxidation protection of the substrate (by gettering oxygen). With increasingly higher demands for high engine-operating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...) matrix. This results in a composite HV for the alloy of between 4.9 and 5.9 GPa (710 and 855 ksi). However, in spite of the relatively high hardness of the composite structure, the balls tend to wear at a rate equivalent to that of the ferrite or pearlite matrix. The abrasive forces that occur during...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... corrosion weakens the role of reinforcements in composites and multiphase alloys. When composite materials and multiphase alloys are worn in corrosive environments, preferential corrosion of the matrix surrounding the reinforcement particles or hard second phases in the solid material microstructure weakens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ( Fig. 1 ). The graph of mixed behavior was created based on results (rounded silica sand of 0.1 to 0.3 mm, or 0.004 to 0.01 in., diameter; 61 m/s, or 200 ft/s, velocity) obtained for WC-15wt%Co cemented carbide consisting of brittle tungsten carbide grains and ductile cobalt matrix ( Ref 49 ). Erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and are also referred to as triple-point or grain-corner cracks in the literature. Wedge-type cracks form at triple points due to grain-boundary sliding and can be promoted by decohesion at interfaces between grain-boundary precipitates and the matrix. High stresses and lower temperatures promote...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Load exceeded the dynamic strength of the part Check for proper alloy and processing, as well as proper toughness, grain size Loading direction can show failure was secondary or impact induced Low temperatures Cyclic stress exceeded the endurance limit of the material Check for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... between increasing failure and the number of impacts. Increasing the number of impacts not only increases the number of cracks but also increases the wear at each crack before the coating eventually starts to delaminate or spall. Cracks arise when a hard coating is not tough or ductile enough to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...), lubricant (type and lubrication regime), environmental temperature ( T ) Material Mechanical (e.g., hardness, H ; fracture toughness, K Ic ), physical (e.g., density, thermal conductivity and diffusivity), chemical properties (e.g., surface energy, work of adhesion), surface microgeometry (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prevention measures to avoid future failures. Consequently, an optimized fatigue design is mainly characterized by a suitable fatigue-proof material with an adequate combination of strength and toughness, optimized surface finish, favorable surface treatment, mild notches and soft stiffness changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and propagation of cracks at stress levels below the fracture toughness or yield, tensile, and fatigue strengths of the metal The discontinuous nature of the crack propagation The morphology of the cracking (e.g., inter- or transgranular cracking, presence or lack of crack tip branching) The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... matrices can result in a tough ceramic material, because energy-dissipating phenomena are introduced, such as debonding at the fiber-matrix interface, crack deflection, fiber bridging, and fiber pullout. These toughening mechanisms can lead to damage-tolerant behavior, as shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Metal-matrix composites (MMCs) are a class of materials with potential for a wide variety of structural and thermal applications. This article discusses the mechanical properties of MMCs, namely aluminum-matrix composites, titanium-matrix composites, magnesium-matrix composites, copper...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003064
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... understood, but weak interfacial bondings seem to be a precondition for producing tough CCCs ( Ref 44 , 137 ). Bonds between fiber and matrix that are too good induce excessive damage and promote fast crack propagation through the fibers. The composite fails in a brittle mode, and no strengthening effect is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Tempering of steel is a process in which hardened or normalized steel is heated to a temperature below the lower critical temperature and cooled at a suitable rate, primarily to increase ductility, toughness, and grain size of the matrix. This article provides an overview of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... because the failure of even several fibers results in the redistribution of load onto other fibers rather than a catastrophic failure of the part. Glass-fiber-reinforced organic-matrix composites are the most familiar and widely used, and have had extensive application in industrial, consumer, military...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article introduces the principal methodologies and some advanced technologies that are being applied for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber-reinforced polymer-matrix composites. These include acoustic emission, ultrasonic, eddy-current, computed tomography, electromagnetic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Materials Handbook, ASM International, 1990, p 821–828 M.M. Schwartz, Joining of Composite Matrix Materials, ASM International, 1994, p 69–77 The five repair joint concepts shown in Fig. 2 were developed for generic laminate repair. Each of these will be discussed in detail. Fig. 2 Repair...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) alloy metal-matrix composites (MMCs) represent an advanced aluminum materials concept whereby ceramic particles, or whiskers, are added to aluminum-base alloys through the use of either ingot-melting or casting and/or powder-metallurgy (P/M...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... their carbon constituents and weakly bonded reinforced matrix, carbon-carbon composites also have superior thermal shock, toughness, ablation, and high-speed friction properties. These properties have led engineers to apply carbon-carbon in reentry bodies, rocket nozzles, and exit cones for strategic...