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torque converters

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... can be loosely described as an instrumented lathe. One end of the specimen is prevented from rotating, while the other is subjected to torque provided by a motor. A tube furnace is used to heat the specimen in place. Angular displacement is monitored from the drive-motor grip system and converted to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... eliminates the variation of temperature across the section thickness that occurs in solid bars twisted at high rates. These temperature variations are a consequence of the variations in shear strain and thus deformation work converted into heat. Thin-wall specimens must have a rather small length-to-diameter...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperatures, and severe frictional conditions at the interfaces of the tool, chip, and workpiece. Most of the work of plastic deformation and friction is converted into heat. In cutting, approximately 80% of this heat leaves with the chip, but the other 20% remains at the tool tip, producing high temperatures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... been applied and computerized by various investigators ( Ref 11 , Ref 12 , Ref 13 , Ref 14 , Ref 15 , Ref 16 ). Studies from the 1970s consider elastic flattening of the rolls and temperature conditions that exist in rolling ( Ref 13 , 17 ). The roll-separating force and the roll torque can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... material. These forms of matter can be converted by either consolidation (of powder) or solidification (of liquid metal) into semifinished ingot or billet form, or they can be consolidated or cast directly into finished product form. The semifinished product form can then be subjected to deformation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in a hammer blow. Energy available for forging: E A =η E T (see text for explanation). Source: Ref 11 Fig. 5 Load displacement, velocity, and torque in a simple slider-crank mechanism. (a) Slider-crank mechanism. (b) Displacement (solid curve) and velocity (dashed curve). (c) Clutch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... SM, UBM, and FEM approaches in predicting force and torque in cold flat rolling. They found that each approach had its own region of superior performance. More recently, Hsu and Tzou ( Ref 6 ) compared slab and UBM approaches in modeling double-layer clad sheet compression forming. In this, the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003973
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-restricted machines, and they use energy stored in a flywheel to provide the force for forging. The rotating energy of inertia of the flywheel is converted to linear motion by a threaded screw attached to the flywheel on one end and to the ram on the other end. Screw presses are widely used in Europe for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... equilibrium can be applied to forces, not stresses. Therefore, the stresses must be converted to force by multiplying by an appropriate area. In Fig. 4(c) , the areas of the primed faces are related to the original faces by the angle θ. If A is the area normal to x ′, then A · cosθ is the area normal to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... stress. Suggested boss designs are shown in Fig. 7 . Some average pullout force and stripping-torque values of screws tested in polycarbonate (PC), for example, are shown in Table 1 . Table 1 Performance data for self-threading screws in polycarbonate Screw size type Hole diameter Driving...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the initiation of scuffing to rapid plastic deformation in the near-surface material of sliding surfaces. In sliding metal contacts, plastic deformation near the surface results in work hardening, while much of the work of friction is converted into heat and a local temperature increase. These high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... finished. More than 95% of the world's primary zinc is now produced from flotation-recovered zinc sulfide (zinc blende). The first stage in virtually all commercial extraction processes is roasting of this sulfide to convert it into the more active zinc oxide. The second...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... According to Table 4 , material having a hardness of 63 HRC must be approximately 0.028 in. thick for an accurate test using the C scale. Therefore, this steel strip should not be tested on the C scale. At this point, check the approximate converted hardness on the other Rockwell scales equivalent to 63...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... been used with fine, technical ceramics such as silicon carbide, silicon nitride, and oxide materials. It is now widely used to fabricate automotive catalytic converter substrates. Shape capability has also expanded greatly, from simple rods and tubes to complex profiles, sheets/films, and honeycombs...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... metal design offers a wide scope in converting ideas into an engineered part. The freedom of design offered through the metalcasting process allows the designer to accomplish several tasks simultaneously. These include the following: Freedom of design to optimize functionality and manufacturability...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... material is usually round, although round-cornered-square or octagonal billets can be used. When nonround material is used, initial working is required to convert it to round stock. The heated block is placed under the main ram in the center of a flat upper and lower die ( Fig. 26 ). The part is then pre...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... investment tooling for some commercial corrosion-resistant casting applications (see Fig. 11 ). Fig. 11 Investment cast titanium components for use in corrosive environments Aerospace use of rammed graphite type castings became a production reality in the early 1970s for aircraft brake torque...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... electrochemical device that continuously converts the chemical energy of a fuel directly to electrical energy. Like a battery, the fuel cell consists of positive and negative electrodes with an electrolyte between them. However, unlike a battery, reactive species (fuel and an oxidant) are supplied continuously to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3