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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... regular and irregular spacings that tend to form a pattern or texture on the surface. This article provides information on the general background of surface topography and discusses the different methods for measuring surface topography, namely, contact and noncontact techniques, and the focus-follow...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Fig. 1 Arrangements for x-ray topography. (a) Reflection topography (the Bragg case). (b) Transmission topography (the Laue case.) P, primary beam; R, diffracted beam; n, normal to diffraction planes; θ B , Bragg angle Fig. 2 Two methods for obtaining reflection topographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of section x-ray topography. (b) Wavefields in Borrmann fan leading to formation of Pendellösung fringes. (c) Section x-ray topograph from a diamond crystal showing Pendellösung fringes that are distorted by dislocations Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of x-ray topography...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... electrode for electrical discharge machining (EDM). It describes the operational methodology of the EDM. Topography, metallurgical and chemical effects, and surface integrity of the EDM surface are reviewed. The article provides information on the characteristics of electrodes and the process features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of plasma surface treatments for plastics. It covers the equipment and methods used in plasma processing, providing detailed explanations of the plasma discharge reactions and how they affect surface state and topography. It also provides information...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-ray topography, two-dimensional X-ray radiography, and ultra-fast three-dimensional X-ray tomography. solidification microstructure solidification two-dimensional X-ray topography two-dimensional X-ray radiography in situ monitoring X-ray imaging synchrotron radiation ultra-fast three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of these techniques. The techniques are divided into those that provide insight into surface topography and surface structure, and those that provide understanding of chemical nature and identity. The article presents a list of web sites and print media addressing corrosion and related topics in five different areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... plate specimen. (a) SEM at the polished and etched/unetched fracture topography interface showing microstructure/fracture topography correlation. Secondary cracks are a result of intense slip bands. (b) SEM that illustrates “furrows” or “troughs” that are defined by the lamellar alpha plates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... deforms individually without influencing the neighboring asperities. Abstract Abstract This article begins with the basic concept of friction and with the general approaches that can be used to control or minimize it. It focuses on the factors influencing rolling friction: surface topography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) controller, and the output of the PID controller activates the Z actuator that controls the motion of the sample. Fig. 13 Magnetic force microscopy images of magnetic recording media. (a) Topography image measured during the first pass of the probe interacting with the hard forces of the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... tuning the prediction model with Fig. 13 on corrosion fatigue lives. The new IDS equals 42 μm (0.00166 in). Fig. 5 Stress amplification due to corrosion topography. (a) von Mises stress contours. (b) Normal stresses versus height at the thinnest part of the skin Fig. 12 Proposed pit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... , and Howard P.S. , Control of Friction , Wear , Vol 175 , 1994 , p 151 – 158 10.1016/0043-1648(94)90178-3 2. Hu Z.M. and Dean T.A. , A Study of Surface Topography, Friction and Lubricants in Metal Forming , Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf. , Vol 40 , 2000 , p 1637 – 1649 10.1016...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...) in (a). The electron dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectrum in inset reveals no oxygen is detected in the subsurface of silicon. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 3 (a) Basic principle of 2-D profile measurement with contact stylus instruments. (b) Basic principle of 3-D topography measurement Fig. 15 High-resolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... during CMP of thin-film ICs has led to a significant decrease in topography variations and has enabled the required deep ultraviolet lithography methodology for multilayer ULSI metallization. In addition to a significant mechanically induced erosion or wearing process, the chemical and electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... properties of thin films, etc. SEM Scanning electron microscopy Electron Electron (secondary scattering) Surface topography ≈1 nm; depth direction 0.3 to several micrometers Damage forms (in situ as well, + electron probe microanalysis) SIMS Secondary ion mass spectroscopy Ion beam Secondary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... “Topography of Surface.” One of the key characteristics of generated surfaces is the topography. Many contact and noncontact methods are used to measure surfaces, and a number of parameters are used to describe surface features, such as roughness, waviness, and bearing ratio. “Microstructural Analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Fig. 2 Laser weld pool free surface measured by the reflective topography technique. (a) Visualized picture. (b) Predicted model. (c) Reflective topography image Fig. 3 Schematic of the x-ray radiography system used for measuring weld pool surface velocity Fig. 1 Schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... the probe interaction with the surface can be as simple as physical topography or as diverse as measurements of the material physical, magnetic, or chemical properties. Physical topography images have excellent resolution in all three dimensions ( Fig. 11 , 12 ). Fig. 10 Schematic showing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... without loss of image sharpness. For automatic cameras, the aperture priority setting is preferred in failure analysis, because of the need to ensure that the entirety of the fracture surface is in focus in the photograph. The topography of a fracture surface is one of the most important features...