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topographic data

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By S.C. Lim
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...: numeric data, topographic data, and multidimensional graphical data. The article provides a brief description of the development of different groups of wear maps. It also summarizes the essential components of a wear map. multidimensional graphical data numeric data topographic data wear data...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... 0.12 0.008 13–22 Data provided by Bruker Instruments, Inc. Vertical (<italic>k</italic><sub><italic>z</italic></sub>), lateral (<italic>k</italic><sub><italic>y</italic></sub>), and torsional (<italic>k</italic><sub><italic>y</italic>T</sub>) spring constants of rectangular cantilevers made...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Fig. 1 Arrangements for x-ray topography. (a) Reflection topography (the Bragg case). (b) Transmission topography (the Laue case.) P, primary beam; R, diffracted beam; n, normal to diffraction planes; θ B , Bragg angle Fig. 2 Two methods for obtaining reflection topographs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and vacuum system. It discusses the contrasts mechanisms used for imaging and analyzing materials in the SEM. These include the topographic contrast, compositional contrast, and electron channeling pattern and orientation contrast. Special instrumentation and accessory equipment used at elevated pressures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... Technique Property Advantages Limitations Light microscopy Physical morphology True color, ambient conditions, few sample limitations Limited magnification, low depth of field Scanning electron microscopy Physical morphology Spatial resolution, rapid data collection Potentially destructive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Fig. 7 (a) Schematic of section x-ray topography. (b) Wavefields in Borrmann fan leading to formation of Pendellösung fringes. (c) Section x-ray topograph from a diamond crystal showing Pendellösung fringes that are distorted by dislocations Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of x-ray topography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information regarding the microstructural features and failure mechanisms that govern the material fracture. The objective of quantitative fractography is to describe the geometric attributes of the topographic and microstructural features present in the fracture surface in quantitative terms, such as number...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to the interface ( Fig. 1 ). The extent of flattening depends on factors such as degree of melting, viscosity of the liquid, and wetting of the surface. Coatings may contain voids that are due to outgassing, shrinkage, or topographical effects (e.g., shadowing). Metal coatings processed in air will also probably...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... image, is readily apparent in the BSE image. Fig. 7 Electron images of a superalloy shaft fracture. (a) Backscattered electron image. (b) Secondary electron image. Bright areas are lead contamination. Topographical imaging in the BSE mode can also provide surface-texture data that cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electron (BE) collection variations due to line of sight that produces topographic contrast during scanning electron microscope imaging. Position (1) produces more signal intensity than position (2). Fig. 30 Illustration of secondary electron (SE) emission variations for (a) low- and (b) high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... subsequent to the field examination. Other ASTM standards providing guidance for failure analysis work and failure analysis documentation include: ASTM E 678, “Standard Practice for Evaluation of Technical Data” ASTM E 860, “Standard Practice for Examining and Testing Items That Are or May...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by an oblique light source. This image shows three-dimensional topographic features. Higher-atomic-number areas and less electrically conductive microstructural features will appear brighter on polished and etched section samples and, to a lesser extent, topographic samples. Compositional contrast...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of these techniques, the types of data produced from each, and some typical applications. The article explains the strengths of AES, XPS, and TOF-SIMS based on data obtained from the surface of a slightly corroded stainless steel sheet. Auger electron spectroscopy chemical characterization stainless steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the suspect or failed part under investigation, the investigator must determine which standards and specifications are required for the design. As part of obtaining background data during the early phases of the investigation, it is critical to determine what materials were selected by the designers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and depth of field obtained is determined by the relationship between the probe size, the angle of convergence of the beam to produce this probe, and the pixel size on the sample. The pixel size is determined by the magnification and may be thought of as a discreet area on the sample where data is taken...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... for detecting fatigue crack initiation and propagation are provided by Allen et al. ( Ref 8 ) and Liaw et al. ( Ref 9 ). More detailed information on the probability of detecting cracks is addressed in the article “NDE Reliability Data Analysis” in Volume 17 of the ASM Handbook , Nondestructive Evaluation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... , 1976 , p. 269 – 272 13. Wright K. and Karlsson B. , Topographic Quantification of Nonplanar Localized Surfaces , J. Microsc. , Vol 130 , part 1, 1983 , p. 37 – 51 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1983.tb04196.x 14. Exner H.E. and Fripan M. , Quantitative Assessment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pixel size. Another useful editing feature is the use of Boolean operators, such as AND, OR, XOR, NOR, NXOR, and NAND, to combine or separate features. Quantitative measurement and analysis is performed for three categories of data. Object measurements analyze individual features such as area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... isotopes, deep penetration, and information about magnetic structure. Disadvantages include the requirement for larger crystals (approximately 1 mm 3 ), longer data-collection times, and a nuclear reactor. Despite sharing the scattering mechanism, the interaction of neutrons with matter is fundamentally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of appropriate detectors, the signals can be analyzed ( Fig. 3 ). Data signals arise from either elastic (electron-nucleus) or inelastic (electron-electron) collisions. Elastic collisions produce backscattered electrons carrying topographic and compositional data ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Inelastic collisions deposit...