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topographic contrast

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... contrast is observed in crystals containing regions of different orientations, such as grains, subgrains, and twins. Misorientations caused by dilations as well as rotations of the lattice also can lead to orientation contrast. A section x-ray topograph ( Fig. 7c ) is produced when a narrow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., it is necessary to understand some elementary ideas regarding the nature of signal generation when high-energy electrons strike a sample surface. The primary types of image contrast in the SEM are topographic and compositional. Topography refers to the physical shape and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... coatings and substrates. However, back-scattered electron emission is highly directional, and strong topographic contrast is visible for rough surfaces, depending on the position of the detector. Secondary electrons leave from the near-surface region of the sample when energies are less than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0005697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... rate of change); depth; diameter fractal dimension da/dN fatigue crack growth rate DBTT ductile-brittle transition temperature dc direct current diam diameter DIC differential interference contrast dm decimeter DPH diamond pyramid hardness (Vickers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... features that have different reflective operties. Polarized light enhances contrast for many polymer samples and shows variations of internal stress in some clear polymers. This method produces a three-dimensional image by creating brightness contrast on very minor topographical changes. Differential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... perimeter Roughness Breath Orientation Computer-based image analysis is a contrast-based microstructural analysis tool that is finding widespread use because of significant improvements in computer speed and memory capabilities. The modern quantitative image analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... sample. Tunneling is rarely used and was mentioned earlier for historical purposes. Giessibl et al. ( Ref 67 ) used it for a low-temperature AFM/STM design. In contrast to tunneling, other deflection sensors are far away from the cantilever, at distances of micrometers to tens of millimeters. The optical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006671
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., to a lesser extent, topographic samples. Compositional contrast and information can be obtained with a backscatter electron detector and by x-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, which permits analysis of both structure and microchemistry. The scale of the SEM is particularly suitable for many...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... 120 s) are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Contrast and brightness are modulated by the operator of the scanning electron microscope. A good micrograph exhibits a range of gray levels; as the number of gray levels increases, so does the information content of the micrograph. The operating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... used. They minimize the thickness of shadow needed to provide adequate image contrast. Thick deposits are generally undesirable because they may obscure fine topographic details and the shadows may be difficult to interpret. The thickness of the shadow deposits is a function of the amount of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... that appear to have been nucleated during the fracture process by numerous, relatively coarse sulfide particles. In contrast, the fracture surface of the 0.008% S steel (see Fig. 8 b) shows relatively few large dimples (and associated sulfide particles) and many small dimples, which evidently were...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The precise optimum angle of obliquity depends on the nature of the fracture markings. 7× A spotlight beam without a diffuser, or a bare bulb with a small filament, will provide high-contrast lighting. If desired, the light can be diffused by placing a piece of tracing paper between the light...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... conclusions about a fracture event, because a passing fracture front leaves a permanent record of its history in the form of topographic markings ( Ref 9 , 10 , 11 ). The FSM can be used to locate the failure origin and determine how the catastrophic crack developed under the influence of the applied and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cotton that will not scratch the polished surface. Etch time varies with etch strength and can only be determined by experience. In general, for high magnification examination, the etch should be shallower, while for low magnification examination a deeper etch yields better image contrast. Some etchants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... implantation range from one face to another (and much less so due to variation in sputtering yield). In the case of polycrystalline and/or multiphase materials, emission intensity can vary considerably from one grain to another, which can be an important source of contrast in secondary ion emission imaging of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9