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titanium sponge

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Published: 01 January 1990
Fig. 1 Photomicrographs of titanium BE materials. (a) −100 mesh titanium sponge fines. (b) Microstructure of a pressed and sintered 99% dense Ti-6Al-4V compact. (c) Crushed hydrogenated-dehydrogenated titanium ingot or machine turnings. (d) Microstructure of a fully dense, pressed and sintered More
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 4 Micrographs of titanium. (a) Hydrogenated titanium sponge. Scale bar at bottom right is 500 µm. (b) Powder. Scale bar is 100 µm. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 3 Powder raw materials. (a) Titanium sponge as extracted by the Kroll process. (b) Titanium sponge after crushing and cutting. (c) Titanium sponge fines (–100 mesh) of unalloyed titanium, obtained as byproduct of the Kroll magnesium process in (a), too small to be used in the melting More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 2 Titanium hydride powder production (modified Kroll process). The hydrogenation reactions within the titanium extraction process convert the sponge into titanium powder (or sponge fines) in lieu of the currently produced titanium sponge, per Ref 3 . The powdered TiH 2 shown More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... for production of titanium metal. These emerging reduction technologies are depicted in the study performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory by EHK Technologies ( Ref 2 ). Titanium Powder Production Processes Titanium Sponge Efforts to produce low-cost powder may...
Image
Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 1 The modified Kroll process per ADMA Products, Inc. involves the use of hydrogen to break down the titanium sponge produced in the present-day titanium reactors. It eliminates the comminution process (boring, shearing, crushing), considerably reduces the vacuum distillation time More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Titanium metal passes through three major steps during processing from ore to finished product: reduction of titanium ore to sponge (porous form), melting of sponge and scrap to form ingot, and remelting and casting into finished shape. This article describes primary fabrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... along with its market developments. It also discusses the application of titanium and titanium alloys in corrosive environments and in aerospace and automotive industries. The article describes the developments in titanium processing and materials technologies, which include the development of sponge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... master alloy powders, or other desired additions, is cold pressed into shape and subsequently sintered to higher density and uniform chemistry. One such process is the ADMA Products, Inc. blended elemental hydrogenated titanium powder production process based on titanium sponge conversion with hydrogen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005205
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Type Feed material Product form and size, mm (in.) Typical melt rate, kg/h (lb/h) Specific power consumption, kW · h/kg Plasma gas Typical furnace pressure Torch design principle and power Plasma consolidation furnaces Titanium scrap and sponge Ingot 355–430 (14–17) diam, 3000 (120) long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... pressing (CIP) a blend of fine elemental titanium and master alloy powders that have been sintered. Titanium sponge fines (−100 mesh) are the most common elemental powder used in this process; these particles are obtained as by-products of the Hunter or Kroll reduction processes ( Ref 4 ). The metallic...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in titanium primary melting. Recently, much of the melting of titanium sponge has been converted to plasma cold hearth (PCH) melting. Also, some of the largest rectangular ingots produced for rolling into sheet are now made on large multimegawatt electron beam (EB) furnaces. The total tonnage of material...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the molten pool and solidifying before they can be melted and homogenized in the solidifying ingot. An alternate to VAR is cold hearth melting. The electrodes for making titanium ingots are compacted aggregates (compact or briquettes) of sponge and alloy elements, including both master melt and elemental...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... carbide particles. Oxygen content can be controlled by mixing titanium sponge with titanium revert material in the appropriate ratio. Cold-hearth-melted titanium ingots can be remelted in a vacuum arc remelting furnace. In some cases, depending on alloy and application, the product of the cold hearth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... back in the 1950s and 1960s. They produced a titanium sponge by sodium reduction process that was reduced to powder, and this powder was ideally suited for DPR process to produce sheets and to extrude green compacted billets to bar, tubing, and shapes ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Commercially pure (CP) titanium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metallurgy zirconium zirconium alloys ZIRCONIUM, like titanium and its sister metal hafnium, is classified as a reactive metal (a metal that readily combines with oxygen at elevated temperatures to form very stable oxides). Zirconium is similar in many respects chemically and mechanically to titanium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... for ingot production may be either titanium sponge or reclaimed scrap. In either case, stringent specifications must be met for control of ingot composition. Most important are the hard, brittle, and refractory titanium oxide, titanium nitride, or complex titanium oxynitride particles that, if retained...
Book Chapter

By Sam Nasser
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ( Ref 1 ) ( Table 1 ). However, while most metals in the group are used almost exclusively in industrial applications as carbides or as minor constituents in alloys of iron, cobalt, and titanium, tantalum has found widespread application in both alloyed as well as commercially pure form ( Ref 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... historical developments in powder metallurgy Date Development Origin 3000 B.C. “Sponge iron” for making tools Egypt, Africa, India 1200 A.D. Cementing platinum grains South America (Incas) 1781 Fusible platinum-arsenic alloy France, Germany 1790 Production of platinum-arsenic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... the presence of pores within each powder particle and thus are called sponge powders. This sponginess is controlled by the amount and size of the pores and accounts for the good compactibility (high green strength) and sinterability of such powders. Processing Conditions Processing conditions for oxide...