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time-variant reliability

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the response surface method, and Monte Carlo sampling. A brief introduction to importance sampling, time-variant reliability, system reliability, and risk analysis and target reliabilities is also provided. The article examines the various application problems for which probabilistic analysis is an essential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... on the Actual Stage and Development Trends in Cold Pressure Welding , DVS Reports , No. 139 , 1991 , p 25 – 32 8. Ruge J. , Manual of Welding Technics , Vol II , 2nd ed. , Springer-Verlag , 1980 Because welding lends itself to numerous techniques of forming, there are many variants...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... produced under different conditions of yeast strain and hop cultivar, and to monitor the volatile profile over time (four days). A wort mixture was generated through brewing processes involving heating, cooling, and adding ingredients at specified intervals. Each variant treatment was transferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of the variable polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding process promotes cathode etching of the tenacious surface oxide film when welding aluminum alloys, allowing good flow characteristics and consistent bead shape. Pulsing times are typically 20 ms for the electrode negative component and 3 ms for the electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... joint preparation can be used for thicknesses up to 12 mm (0.5 in.). The process can produce high weld integrity (similar to GTAW) while minimizing weld passes and hence welding times and labor costs. The columnar shape of the arc results in a greater tolerance to variations in torch standoff distance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... be accommodated by this variant selection process. Once one reaches approximately 6 to 8% strain, the variant(s) best suited to the new shape are optimally selected, at which time martensite abruptly work hardens and ultimately deforms in a conventional manner ( Fig. 8 ). Stress-induced martensite: When...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... surface durability tests to exhibit less scatter than those of RCF tests, and Weibull slopes are generally three or higher. Six tests are still generally conducted with each variant at each load, the reduced scatter being used to allow more statistically reliable comparison of the results rather than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
...Types of misorientations between different α variants Table 1 Types of misorientations between different α variants Misorientation types Rotation angle/axis A I (identity) B 60°/[11 2 0] α C 60.83°/[ 10   7 17 3] α D 63.26°/[ 10 5 5 3] α E 90°/[7 17 10 0] α...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... during transformation, thermoelastic martensites are crystallographically reversible. The herringbone structure of athermal martensites essentially consists of twin-related, self-accommodating variants ( Fig. 2b ). The shape change among the variants tends to cause them to eliminate each other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... with respect to the stated problem, assumptions, major and minor factors. Compare alternatives and discuss the relative merits of each (in terms of cost savings/avoidance, cycle time reduction, increase in quality, and head count reduction). From this discussion, a clear leader among the alternatives (i.e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... as the ratio of electricity generated from renewable sources rises. Table 1 Characteristic features of the two principal melting systems in iron foundries Feature Induction furnace Cupola furnace Chemical composition and tapping temperature Variable at all times, reliably adjustable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... can also be used to foster the necessary mechanisms for solid-state joining. Variants of solid-state resistance welding include flash-butt, upset-butt, mash-seam, etc. This article provides a fundamentals-based description of these approaches through one specific process variant. This is termed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... -curve behavior of the ceramic could be measured. Crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) was monitored using a laser extensometer, and the CMOD signal was used in the control of the servohydraulic testing machine in real time. The results of this type of control were positive, and stable crack growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... subtypes, some variants, and some combinations known as hybrids. Together, the various options for joining materials are as much an enabling technology as they are a pragmatic process for manufacture, construction, or repair. References 1. Messler R.W. Jr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of the deflection field), this variant is called the continuous interacting (CI) technique because the EB power is kept constant during the process. Second, the component to be treated and the EB deflection field are fixed, but the beam power is controlled in dependence on time. Because the energy-transfer times...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... is that when there is a thickness mismatch between the formed piece and the premachined cavity, nonuniform pressure is produced on the part resulting in nonuniform consolidation. When heating or cooling is desired, the dies usually have such a high heat content that heat transfer times are long. Finally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... The article presents a partial list of surface-modification methods based on FSP. The partial list includes surface hardening, surface composites, and additive coating. The article also provides information on generation of residual stresses in metallic materials and alloys form different variants of FSP...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Elements Fe, Cr and V on Long Time Corrosion in PWRs , Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, 12th Intl. Symp. , STP 1354, ASTM , 2000 , p 609 – 622 15. Bai J.B. , Prioul C. , and François D. , Hydride Embrittlement in Zircaloy-4 Plate, I. Influence of the Microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., Fig. 14 ), this (SiCa + FeS) inoculation variant reduced chill by 4.2 times and increased nodule count by 2.3 times, without the necessity to use more expensive elements, such as cerium or bismuth. Fig. 14 (a) Chill tendency and (b) nodule count of magnesium-treated iron (base iron) after FeS...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003140
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ksi) to 480 MPa (70 ksi) simply as a result of variations in the interstitial and impurity levels. Oxygen and iron are the primary variants in these grades; strength increases with increasing oxygen and iron contents. Alpha alloys that contain aluminum, tin, and/or zirconium are preferred for high...