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time-variant reliability

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., the response surface method, and Monte Carlo sampling. A brief introduction to importance sampling, time-variant reliability, system reliability, and risk analysis and target reliabilities is also provided. The article examines the various application problems for which probabilistic analysis is an essential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of Burgers correspondence variants and orientation variants. The article also includes calculation of the transformation strain with contributions from defect structures developed at alpha/beta interfaces as a precipitates grow in size. In the CALculation of PHAse Diagram (CALPHAD) framework, the Gibbs free...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... profile over time (four days). A wort mixture was generated through brewing processes involving heating, cooling, and adding ingredients at specified intervals. Each variant treatment was transferred to a headspace vial (20 mL glass with septum cap) for long-term fermentation at 20 °C (68 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006861
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... “demands” the droplet ejection in a specific time and space. In parallel with DOD, there exists another commercial variation of inkjetting called continuous inkjetting, which uses conductive ink and continuously recycles itself when not deposited. This process has an issue of sterility and resolution when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... with great care and to control the parameters of the welding process as closely as the equipment tolerance specifications allow. Variations of Cold Pressure Welding Because welding lends itself to numerous techniques of forming, there are many variants of the cold pressure welding process. Cold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
...) best suited to the new shape are optimally selected, at which time martensite abruptly work hardens and ultimately deforms in a conventional manner ( Fig. 8 ). Stress-induced martensite: When deformed below the M d temperature, austenite deforms by forming selected variants of martensite ( Fig. 9...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Variable at all times, reliably adjustable Depending on furnace process, adjustable only with off-grade iron Sulfur adsorption None 0.12–0.15% Emissions  Dust 0.5 kg/ton 8–12 kg/ton  Slag 10–20 kg/ton 40–100 kg/ton  Harmful exhaust gas components None (with clean scrap) SO 2 , No x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... can also be used to foster the necessary mechanisms for solid-state joining. Variants of solid-state resistance welding include flash-butt, upset-butt, mash-seam, etc. This article provides a fundamentals-based description of these approaches through one specific process variant. This is termed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003327
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... in high-speed power-circulating gear test rigs. However, with some transmission designs there is enough time between the onset of increased vibration and catastrophic failure for a vibration monitoring system to give sufficient warning to permit an orderly shutdown of the equipment. The mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and the dimension of the deflection field), this variant is called the continuous interacting (CI) technique because the EB power is kept constant during the process. Second, the component to be treated and the EB deflection field are fixed, but the beam power is controlled in dependence on time. Because the energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... include time, t , as the variable. Total Energy Functional and Variation A field description of microstructure involves a large number of variables (one or several for each spatial coordinate, r , with each one regarded as a degree of freedom). An effective way to formulate their time evolution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... was used by the American Petroleum Institute to design offshore structures ( Ref 16 ). The most significant changes since 2002 have been the development and application of probabilistic analysis methods in predicting the system reliability of structural and mechanical systems in time-variant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., and time. Several recent business decisions give insight to these claims: To avoid losing market share, all U.S. commercial airplane manufacturers have offered contracts to deliver aircraft at prices that are below current cost ( Ref 1 ). The companies are betting that they can remain profitable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... of standard (off-the-shelf) components in place of special-purpose designs helps reduce part variations as well as total information content of the manufacturing system. A stock item is always less expensive than a custom-made item. Standard components require little or no lead time and are more reliable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... of twin-related, self-accommodating variants ( Fig. 2b ). The shape change among the variants tends to cause them to eliminate each other. As a result, little macroscopic strain is generated. In the case of stress-induced martensites, or when stressing a self-accommodating structure, the variant that can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... subtypes, some variants, and some combinations known as hybrids. Together, the various options for joining materials are as much an enabling technology as they are a pragmatic process for manufacture, construction, or repair. Need for Joining Assemblies are generally manufactured in-plant from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... proceedings and journals related to NDT shows that the idea of the reliability of NDT has been discussed for some time. In 1965, the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) wrote a letter (dated November 24, 1965) to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), which spurred a number of developments in NDT...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... are variants of these processes. Table 1 lists characteristics and capacities of processing methods used for thermoplastic and thermoset parts. Thermoplastics and thermoset processing comparison Table 1 Thermoplastics and thermoset processing comparison Process Process pressure Maximum...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... is an enfolding of the surface, leading automatically to the folding-in and submersion of its surface film ( Fig. 1 ). Such surface turbulence leads to entrainment events that are usually rapid, requiring only milliseconds. The creation of a new surface and the time available for the formation of a new oxide film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
.... The article presents a partial list of surface-modification methods based on FSP. The partial list includes surface hardening, surface composites, and additive coating. The article also provides information on generation of residual stresses in metallic materials and alloys form different variants of FSP...