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time-of-flight diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... distributions. Common particle size measuring techniques discussed in this article include sieve analysis, quantitative image analysis, laser diffraction, sedimentation methods, aerodynamic time-of-flight method, electrical zone sensing, and photon correlation spectroscopy. The advantages and disadvantages...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to that from a reference standard, most commonly a flat-bottomed or side-drilled hole (FBH, SDH) or a simple saw cut or notch. In recent years, more quantitative defect-sizing methods have been implemented, such as using time-of-flight diffraction for cracks ( Ref 9 ) and both amplitude and response analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... Fig. 4 Time-of-flight single-crystal diffractometer at a pulsed neutron source. Detector is usually fixed at 90° 2θ, and diffraction is recorded in Laue's geometry. The sample (a single crystal) is positioned by Eulerian angle motions. Fig. 5 Furnace designed for single-crystal neutron...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
....,). CRC Press . 10.1201/b11173 27. Ganhao L.A. , Sizing with Time-of-Flight Diffraction , Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials , Vol 17 , ASM Handbook , Ahmad A. and Bond L.J. , Ed.. ASM International , 2018, pp. 283 – 290 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472 28...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ultrasonic inspection internal visual inspection non-invasive inspection HUGE AMOUNTS OF TIME AND MONEY ARE INVESTED in designing, constructing, commissioning, and operating major petroleum and petrochemical installations. To safeguard this investment and to ensure adequate prevention of adverse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... standard Title EN 4179 “Aerospace Series—Qualification and Approval of Personnel for Non-Destructive Testing” EN ISO 9712 “Non-Destructive Testing—Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel—General Principles” EN 15617 “Non-Destructive Testing of Welds—Time-of-Flight Diffraction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the naked eye. Surface indications revealed using dye penetrants and magnetic particles ( Fig. 13 ) are common examples, while interpretation of radiographs, infrared mapping, and assessment of displays on monitors of phased arrays, time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD), and eddy-current instruments consist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... position. (b) Incident beam through a 2.4 m (7.9 ft) focusing square guide with logarithmic spiral curvature. Note that the color scale at right is much higher (500 versus 200 counts). Fig. 7 Typical goniometer for single-crystal and time-of-flight Laue diffractometers with a vertical ω rotation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that control the time of transit of an ultrasound wave through the testpiece Attenuation of ultrasound waves caused by absorption and scattering within the testpiece Features seen in the spectral response for either a transmitted or a reflected signal Most conventional ultrasonic inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in a similar way to time-of-flight diffraction. An incident Rayleigh wave can be reflected from the crack opening, while lower-frequency waves can partly pass underneath the crack. A further part of the incident wave will propagate down to the bottom of the crack, where it will undergo mode conversion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... as well as a tool for fracture mechanics studies. Various ultrasonic techniques, such as the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), ultrasonic spectroscopy, and the compound scanning technique, have been used to detect diffusion bond defects ( Ref 5...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... mechanics studies. Various ultrasonic techniques, such as the time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique, scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), ultrasonic spectroscopy, and the compound scanning technique, have been used to detect diffusion bond defects ( Ref 5 ). The TOFD method showed a promising...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... at a particular position within the ultrasonic beam Those methods that measure crack size by the time of flight of pulses from the transmitter to receiver via the crack tip, irrespective of the pulse amplitude Ultrasonic measurements comprise two stages. The first stage involves obtaining the signal from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... in that they arrive as dispersed pulses, and the variation in neutron energy contained in the pulse makes it possible to base measurement on time of flight ( Ref 8 , 9 ). In effect, a wide range of wavelengths are dispersed in time such that a fixed detector position can be used to measure intensities for a wide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the shadow cone created by the first atom A is on the center of the second atom B. The number of backscattered ions increases due to the focusing effects at a critical angle of αcr . Fig. 10 Time-flight-spectra at Pt(111) substrate temperature of 300 K during Pd deposition Fig. 11...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and characterization, plus in thickness measurements. Flaw position and depth below a surface is determined from the time-of-flight between the initial pulse and the echo produced by a flaw. Flaw depth may also be determined by the relative transit time between the echo produced by a flaw and the echo from the back...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Accuracy by Pulse-Echo, Time-of-Flight Diffraction and Phased Array Mechanized Ultrasonic Testing Methods,” Tech. Rep. 45066CAP, Edison Welding Institute , 2002 9. Wang K.K. , Reif G.R. , and Oh S.K. , In-Process Quality Defection of Friction Welds Using Acoustic Emission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... catastrophic failures of Comet airplanes in the previous year. At that time, the Comet fleet was grounded, and its airworthiness certificate was revoked. Through the wreckage examination and pressure testing of an exemplar fuselage, it was determined that the in-flight breakup was due to fatigue initiating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is calculated as the product of the measured time of flight and the known acoustic-wave velocity. Ultrasound can be used to detect flaws by measuring (a) the amplitude of the acoustic pressure wave and time of flight of reflected acoustic waves and (b) the amplitude of the acoustic pressure wave of either...