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time-of-flight diffraction

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 16 Time-of-flight diffraction scan showing time-based triggering problems More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 The two probe basis for the time-of-flight diffraction technique. The locations of the crack tips are determined from the time differences between the lateral wave and the pulses that follow paths p 1 + p 2 or p 3 + p 4 . These paths correspond to t 1 and t 2 , respectively More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 1 Typical arrangement for the time-of-flight diffraction technique. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2 B-scan image obtained by application of the time-of-flight diffraction technique. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 4 Time-of-flight diffraction reference block. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5 Time-of-flight diffraction two-zone reference block. T 1 , upper-zone thickness; T 2 , lower-zone thickness. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6 Time-of-flight diffraction offset scans. PCS, probe center separation. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 7 Time-of-flight diffraction image showing hyperbolic “tails” from the ends of a flaw image used to measure flaw length. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 8 Time-of-flight diffraction image showing top and bottom diffracted signals from midwall flaw and A-scan interpretation. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 9 Time-of-flight diffraction image showing top and bottom diffracted signals from centerline crack and A-scan interpretation. Source: Ref 6 More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11 Typical defects and their corresponding time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) displays. (a) For a toe crack, the lateral wave is disrupted, and the bottom of the crack is visible. This can be characterized as a surface-breaking crack, and the depth can be measured. (b) For incomplete root More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 11 Typical defects and their corresponding time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) displays. (a) For a toe crack, the lateral wave is disrupted, and the bottom of the crack is visible. This can be characterized as a surface-breaking crack, and the depth can be measured. (b) For incomplete root More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 12 Satisfactory time-of-flight diffraction image displaying undisturbed lateral wave (amplitude between 40 and 80% full screen height), four indications of notches in different depths, straight back wall reflection, and mode-converted signals from notches and back wall More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 13 Time-of-flight diffraction image showing a too-low gain setting with a lateral wave amplitude ≪ 40% full screen height More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 14 Time-of-flight diffraction image showing a too-high gain setting with a lateral wave amplitude ≫ 80% full screen height (saturated) More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 15 Time-of-flight diffraction image that is missing scan lines caused by a too-high scanning speed More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 17 Time-of-flight diffraction image influenced by variation of couplant layer thickness (which may be straightened by software) More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 21 (a) Schematic showing time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) inspection geometry across a weld. PCS, probe center separation. (b) Portable system with manual TOFD yoke and transducers. Used with permission of Olympus More
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 22 Example of time-of-flight diffraction cursor sizing of defect height. Used with permission of Olympus More