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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... presently being developed to reduce SMC cycle time ( Ref 3 ). Current minimum cycle time is about 1 min, button to button, die closed time. Tooling must be of high quality to maintain these fast molding rates and must be hardened in critical wear areas. It is also necessary in some cases to use compression...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-Zr-Mo (TZM) alloy are used for higher temperatures. The diameter of the anvils should be at least three times that of the specimen. The compression platens are made from tool steel, tungsten carbide, TZM, or ceramic composite, depending on the temperature. Compression platens should be flat and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) is an ultrasonic technique used to detect diffracted waves from crack tips and to size the cracks from the arrival times of those waves. This article discusses the basic considerations and provides information on probe selection, gain setting, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... true strain rate, ε ˙ , in a compression test is: (Eq 6) ε ˙ = d ε d t = − d h / h d t = − 1   d h h   d t = − v h where v is the velocity of the platen, and h is the height of the specimen at time, t . Because h decreases...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Stress-relief heat treating of steel is the uniform heating of a structure to a suitable temperature below the transformation range, holding at this temperature for a predetermined period of time, followed by uniform cooling. This article provides information on the sources of residual...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pulse jet, which uses tubular filter bags made of natural fibers or synthetic felt with an internal support cage of heavy wire and a venturi. Dust and foreign material accumulate on the outer surfaces of the bag and are removed by a short-time, high-pressure pulse of compressed air into the top opening...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... has eliminated the time consuming and error-prone process of generating a new mesh on a highly deformed body by interpolating the data from the old mesh. AMG is currently available in software specifically designed for bulk deformation processing, such as DEFORM 2D and DEFORM 3D, as well as on other...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... of the cylindrical surface at midheight ranges from 0.2 to 0.75 times the specimen height. The reduced diameter of the flanged compression-test specimens is 0.8 times the original cylinder diameter, and the angle of the tapered compression specimens is 20°. In no case should the end-face diameter be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Coatings, such as those applied to ships, must be resistant to abrasion, in the case of cargo hold coatings, and cyclic changes of chemicals and tank cleaning, in the case of tank linings. Failures and defects can manifest themselves at various times in the life of a coating. To...
Book Chapter

By Ted Kostilnik
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... times greater than the subsurface tensile stress. This compressive stress offsets any service-imposed tensile stress, such as that encountered in bending, and improves fatigue life of parts in service markedly. Peening action improves the distribution of stresses in surfaces that have been disturbed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... most often used for testing harder metals, such as steels and cast irons. The load is held for a specified time (10 to 15 s for iron or steel and about 30 s for softer metals), after which the diameter of the recovered indentation is measured in millimeters. This time period is required to ensure that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... cure time and shelf life stability of SMC systems and may accelerate or inhibit the reactivity of the catalyst-resin system. Thus, preevaluation of the reactivity of a specific pigment is essential. Thermoplastic polymers are combined with polyester resins to achieve low polymerization shrinkage for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... PLASTICS are synthetic polymer resins capable of being formed into load-bearing shapes. Thermoplastic materials can be thermal cycled a limited number of times without undergoing irreversible chemical changes. At elevated temperatures, thermoplastics soften and can be molded or extruded into shape...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the orientation of the principal material axis, x 1 , within each ply. If a ply were repeated, a subscript would be used to denote the number of repeating plies. Thus, [0°/90° 3 /0°] indicates that the 90° ply is repeated three times. Any laminate in which the ply stacking sequence below the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... C26000), which can satisfactorily withstand cold reduction of up to 90% between anneals. Alloys containing as much as 1.25% Pb can be successfully extruded if the amount of upset is mild and the workpiece is in compression at all times during metal flow. Copper alloys containing more than 1.25% Pb are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 64 GPa (9.1 to 9.3 10 3 ksi). It is usually calculated as 0.39 times E ( Ref 16 ). Poisson's ratio (ν) for ductile iron in tension and in compression is approximately 0.28, with values of 0.275 to 0.285 often quoted. Modulus of rigidity G is related to ν and to E by the formula E = 2 G (1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reduced section. The 0.2% offset yield strength of ductile iron in compression generally is reported as 1.0 to 1.2 times the 0.2% offset yield strength in tension. The compressive properties shown in exit Table 5 were determined using specimens from the same single heat of ductile iron described...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... alloy have been homogenized by a conservative temperature-time schedule and are ready for trial processing. What temperature and strain rate should be used to maximize the probability that useful product can be extruded? A transverse slice from one experimental billet is cut, and torsion specimens of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... may use exemplar test bars fabricated at the same time. Raw materials specification for castings may require separately cast bars, “hang-on” bars, or bars cut from a section of the casting. Each test bar will produce mechanical properties that can be correlated to the actual casting based on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... compression, bending, torsion). Finally, the factors influencing the appearance of a fracture surface and various imperfections or stress raisers are described, followed by a root-cause failure analysis case history to illustrate some of these fractography concepts. brittle fracture crack nucleation...