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through-silicon vias

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for performing single parts per trillion (ppt) and sub-ppt-level analysis. Gaseous Sample Introduction A gas can be directly introduced into the ICP through the gas phase as a part of an argon carrier flow. This is carried out by adding a gaseous sample directly into the spray chamber via an additional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... consists of three layers, including a bond coat, a chemical reaction barrier interlayer, and a water-vapor-resistant topcoat. Generally, all are deposited via APS on silicon-based ceramic-matrix composite (CMC) substrates, for example, SiC/SiC or Si 3 N 4 /Si 3 N 4 . Some commercially available EBC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006068
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... that the final nitrogen content of the resulting stainless powder can be kept reasonably low. Powders high in carbon and/or en exhibit poor compressibility. Silicon content must also be carefully adjusted via the addition of ferro-silicon. Silicon, in addition to its effect on oxygen content of the powder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... metal. (Eq 1) SiO 2 + 2 C → > 1420   ° C Si + 2 CO While a portion of the silicon metal is used directly in applications such as semiconductor chips or photovoltaic cells, the majority is converted into organo-substituted chlorosilane monomers via reaction with alkyl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... as accurate homogeneous control of dopant atoms, is accomplished through a number of steps in the process. Raw materials are extracted from mineral sources via a large variety of processing steps. For the most common semiconductor, silicon, the raw material is SiO 2 sand. A lower-grade metallurgical silicon...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005342
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Rupture through the alloy will occur at and through the silicon particles and also through the aluminum matrix. The fracture will exhibit brittle features at the silicon particles, but tear ridges and dimples will be present at the matrix. These features are illustrated in Fig. 4 , which shows...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... induction coils, mounted either independently or together on a common frame that can facilitate quick-change technology. Of the numerous methods to heat billets, bars, and slabs, this design is most widely used. In this system, the bars or billets are transported end to end through the coil line via...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... conditions. This is especially true for EDS analysis of fracture surfaces. Typically, fractures occur through and around phases and precipitates in the matrix, resulting in a disproportionately high concentration of those elements in the exposed phases. For example, the fracture through a silicon-containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the application of amorphous and crystalline films through plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from the view point of microelectronic device fabrication. It describes the various types of PECVD reactors and deposition techniques. Plasma enhancement...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the pipe to achieve supersonic flow rates for the oxygen. This increased velocity allows blast air and oxygen to penetrate deeper into the coke bed. Injection of Fine Coke Injection of Fine Coke and other materials, such as silicon carbide, through the tuyeres has proved to be effective in both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Interplays of metallurgical factors, such as dissolved oxygen, carbon, and silicon content, that control the molten metal from melting to pouring, have a decisive influence on the quality of the castings. This article focuses on the magnesium treatment and desulfurization carried out...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of various inclusions typically observed in aluminum-silicon alloys was examined by intentionally introducing Al 2 O 3 , Al 4 C 3 , MgO, CaO, TiB 2 , and TiAl 3 inclusions in Al-6%Si alloy melts through the addition of master alloys, powder, or other sources. In addition to the LiMCA data obtained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... of thermal spray coatings and functions they provide. It also presents key references from various National Thermal Spray Conference, United Thermal Spray Conference, and International Thermal Spray Conference Proceedings from 2006 through 2012. aerospace industry automotive industry electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... measurement can detect the wear depth on a silicon surface ranging from 0 to 15 nm as relative humidity (RH) increases from 0% to 100%. Several independent experiments are conducted to calculate the average wear depth. The wear volume can be obtained through integrating over the wear profiles. As shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and turnings proved practical because of lower air velocity and lower oxidation level. Silicon could be produced by injecting silica sand plus coke breeze. Iron could be produced by injecting as much as 20% iron oxide through the tuyeres. The many possibilities of the plasma-fired cupola merited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... those of silicon: The maximum temperature is approximately 350 °C (660 °F) for GaAs and 275 °C (525 °F) for silicon. Therefore, the use of GaAs circuits reduces the need for bulky cooling equipment. Also, electrons move up to five or six times faster through GaAs than through silicon, making operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of large holes and vias on PWBs. The silver content of 62.5Sn-36.1Pb-1.4Ag reduces the dissolution of silver coatings, such as electroplated finishes on base metals, or the silver conductor used in thick-film terminations on either surface-mount packages or in hybrid microcircuit thick-film networks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-0.35Mn-0.25Cu F1 130 18.9 260 37.7 10 Fig. 4 Microstructures of aluminum-silicon alloy in the (a) unmodified and (b) modified conditions. Source: Ref 12 . Courtesy of J.A. Cheng Aluminum-silicon alloys have been used extensively for making MMCs via various casting techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... concept and design phases of these aircraft during acquisition processes of the 1960s through early 1980s. As a result, currently fielded aircraft weapon systems experience high life-cycle costs due to increased maintenance and decreased component/system reliability from degradation associated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... postcarburization (>700 HV),