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threshold sensitivity

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inorganic chemical compounds. This article describes the operating principles and types of XRD analyses, along with information about the threshold sensitivity and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and capabilities of related techniques. The necessary instrumentation for XRD analyses include the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
.... Moreover, small cracks with size on the order of microstructure heterogeneity (grains, phases) propagate below driving-force levels corresponding to long crack thresholds and can be arrested by interaction with strong microstructure barriers. Such microstructurally small cracks are subject to the varying...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... composition and thickness of thin film deposits Threshold sensitivity: ∼0.02% Precision of quantitative analyses: ∼1% relative or 0.02% absolute, depending on count time Threshold sensitivity: ∼0.005% Precision of quantitative analyses: ∼0.2% relative or 0.005% absolute, whichever is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm (same as SEM) Auger electron characterization of elemental chemistry: 10 to 20 nm; sampling depth: ∼1 nm Threshold sensitivity: ∼0.5% Precision of quantitative analyses: ∼10% relative or 0.5% absolute, whichever is greater Cannot...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characterization of elemental chemistry: ∼2 μm using typical beam voltages of ∼20 kV (much better resolution, ∼100 nm, can be obtained using low voltage beams) Electron diffraction characterization of crystal structure and orientation: ∼1 μm Threshold sensitivity for elemental analysis using EDS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006070
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... levels of salts beneath coatings. The information shows that there appears to be a threshold limit to the salt contamination that a given coating/coating system can tolerate in a given environment. corrosion degradation immersion test osmotic blistering solubility tolerance IT IS WELL KNOWN...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... XRPD analysis are: Threshold sensitivity: A phase or compound must typically represent 1 to 2% of the sample to be detected. Precision of interplanar spacing and lattice-parameter measurements: ~0.3% relative in routine measurements; within ~0.003% relative in experiments optimized for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract The constitutive relations for metalworking include elements of behavior at ambient temperature as well as high-temperature response. This article presents equations for strain hardening and strain-rate-sensitive flow, with alternate sections on empirically determined properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... N reaction, if the bombarding neutrons are not well thermalized. The energy threshold of this (n,p) reaction is 8.4 MeV. Reference 27 describes the application of DNAA to the assay of several geological reference materials, using a 60 s thermal neutron irradiation, followed by a 10 s delay...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003156
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) At approximately 400 °C (750 °F) (threshold oxidation temperature), graphite undergoes a weight loss of 1% in 24 h in air. Graphite elements can be operated at surface temperatures up to 2205 °C (4000 °F) in inert atmospheres. The ductile wrought alloys in the first group have properties that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... addition of the inert gas cluster ion beam to XPS instruments has allowed depth profiling with minimal damage to organic samples. It is especially useful for depth profiling of organic and polymeric materials but not as useful for sputtering metals, due to the higher energy threshold needed for sputtering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... designed to allow detection thresholds to be set to maximize the POD while minimizing the PFA. Factors affecting the POD include the signal sensitivity to degradations of interest, the size or severity of degradation that constitutes a critical flaw, instrument and material noise, and human factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... stresses must be above some threshold value. The tensile stress may be residual stress resulting from heat treatment or fabrication of the metal, may be developed by external loading, or may be a combination of these conditions. Stress-corrosion cracking occurs under service conditions, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... applied periodically that identifies absolutely all damages greater than some inspectable threshold ( D I ). Note that all curves originate below the threshold due to the initial production NDT final inspection. The curves of Fig. 6 show increasing damage with time (synonymous with usage) as is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... for superplasticity are noted because the phenomenological equations are abundant in superplasticity literature. There are relations ranging from the standard power-law types, various polynomial models, mechanical models (such as generalized Maxwell and Bingham body problems; mechanical threshold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... fracture mechanics K crit critical value of stress concentration K Ic fracture toughness; plane-strain fracture toughness K ISCC threshold stress intensity for stress-corrosion cracking K t stress-concentration factor K th threshold stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.9781627081757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thresholding ) assigns specific contrast values to the image (0 to 255 gray levels). The most accurate and precise method for properly thresholding an image is to use a gray-level histogram. Figure 1 shows a porous steatite ceramic sample and the corresponding gray-level histogram. The darker phase (porosity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... computer all the signals with a proper delay. The delay applied corresponds to twice the propagation time between the point C and the generation/detection point from the grid at the origin of the signal. If, after summation, a result above a certain noise threshold is obtained, this is indicative of a...