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three-roll bending

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., through feed, planetary, and internal. This article focuses on the capabilities, limitations, and machines used for these methods. It describes the three characteristics, such as rollability, flaking, and seaming, used in evaluating and selecting metals for thread rolling. The article explores the factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... products from blooms, billets, and slabs. It describes two methods for shapes or sections: universal rolling and caliber rolling. The article provides information on two-high mills and three-high mills. Specialty mills for thin sheets, namely, the Sendzimir mill and planetary mill, are discussed. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming, drop hammer...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Operating essentials in one method of three-roll bending Fig. 3 Drawing with a fixed plug Fig. 4 Drawing with a floating plug Fig. 5 Drawing with a moving mandrel (the ironing process) Fig. 6 Cross section of a typical wire die for drawing 5.5 mm (0.218 in.) diam rod...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article reviews the failure analysis process with specific reference to the considerations that should be addressed when a casting has failed. It describes the failure analysis methodology for three failed cast components: an aluminum bracket, a bronze suction roll, and a steel...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... as well as the three main types of wrought products: flat-rolled products, wire-drawn products, and extruded and forged products. The article also provides a section on the corrosion resistance of zinc and zinc coatings in various atmospheres. corrosion resistance galvanizing iron and steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 9 shows a plate deformed in three-point bending. The principal stress and strains developed during bending are defined in Fig. 10 . The critical parameter is width-to-thickness ratio, w / t . if w / t < 8, bending occurs under plane-strain conditions (ε 2 = 0), and σ 2 /σ 1 = 0.5. If w...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... shaped through plastic deformation. This article restricts its consideration to the shaping of materials by such bulk deformation processes as forging, extrusion, and rolling. The evaluation of workability of a material involves both the measurement of the resistance to deformation (strength) and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000605
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... tie rod adjusting sleeve for automobile steering system. Fig. 113 : Tubular part was made by cold forming cold-rolled sheet. 1.8×. Fig. 114 : Macrograph reveals fracture progressed at 90° to surface. (General Motors Research Laboratories) Bending impact fracture of SAE 1010 tie rod adjusting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... properties are different in different directions. For the common wrought products such as bar, extrusion, plate, sheet, and so on, these three orientations are longitudinal, long transverse, and short transverse. For other manufacturing operations such as die forgings, castings, and additive manufacturing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... concentration in the matrix (faceted nitride inclusions in a high-strength, low-alloy, or HSLA, steel) Inclusions have a low-strength interface bond (if any) with the matrix and have mechanical properties different from those of the matrix. In steels, these inclusions fall into three general groups...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... generally denotes cold forming of plate, sheet, bars, beams, pipe, or angular cross section lengths into selected shapes by passing the metal workpiece between three correctly spaced rolls ( Ref 1 , 5 ). The roll forming process employs pairs of small opposed rollers to shape a cylindrical workpiece into a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003981
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... passed sequentially to forge the desired shape. The roll dies are of three types: flat back, semicylindrical, and fully cylindrical ( Fig. 6 ) and are selected according to the design and manufacturer of the machine. Fig. 5 Roll die with two impressions Fig. 6 Three types of dies used in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... III, Ekelund, and Ford, are based on formulae derived from simplified models of rolling, while the last three, Sims, Alexander (force) and Alexander (torque), are based on more elaborate models and give quite different friction coefficients. Fig. 3 Application of various friction coefficient...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003094
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and the sheet harder for the hot-rolled than for the cold-rolled materials. Fig. 1 Typical mechanical properties of low-carbon steel sheet shown by the range of properties in steel furnished by three mills. Hot-rolled sheet thickness from 1.519 to 3.416 mm (0.0598 to 0.1345 in., or 16 to 10...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... components to various specifications. There are two basic methods of flow forming that are characterized by the position of the rolls during the forming process. One method involves the use of staggered rolls, where three rolls are staggered axially and radially. The second method uses in-line rolls, where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of various steel manufacturing processes, such as ingot casting, continuous casting, and hot rolling. It provides an outline of specialized processing routes of producing ultralow plain carbon steels, interstitial-free steels, high strength low-alloy steels, ultrahigh strength steels, stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... operation. For rolling, recovery anneals are typically performed after 50 to 70% reduction. As an example, tungsten plates thicker than 25 mm (1 in.) are typically heated to approximately 1600 °C (2910 °F) for initial rolling. They can be rolled to 50% reduction in two passes before they cool too much for...