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three-ply linings

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003847
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... natural rubber, semihard natural rubber, hard natural rubber, neoprene or polychloroprene, chlorobutyl, three-ply linings, nitrile, and ethylene propylene with a diene monomer. Emphasis is placed on advantages, disadvantages, and common uses of each material discussed. abrasion resistance corrosion...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... in shear as well as in longitudinal tension and compression. Therefore, one ply was added in each of three directions (0, +45, and −45) on both sides of the laminate ( Fig. 5 ). This joint developed 97% joint efficiency (in room-temperature, dry, tension conditions) and consistently failed in parent...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a nondestructive technique that is useful in both quality control and research applications for flaw detection in fiber-reinforced composite materials. This article describes ultrasonic nondestructive analysis by outlining its three basic types of scans. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the ply fast enough to be visible as a uniform line. Although mechanical systems are available to produce plies and stack groups of plies in the flat, devices to seat these lay-ups on complex-shaped tools need further development. Composite prepregs vary in tack, which assists in holding plies on...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Laminate stacking sequences can be easily described for composites composed of layers of the same material with equal ply thickness by simply listing the ply orientations from the top of the laminate to the bottom. Thus, the notation [0°/90°/0°] uniquely defines a three-layer laminate. The angle denotes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Autoclave molding is a process used to impart a controlled heat and pressure cycle cure to a layup. This article describes the materials used for preparing a layup, including peel ply, separator, bleeder, barrier, breather, dam, and vacuum bag. It describes the major elements and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... the medium and heavy weight range (200 to 610 g/m 2 , or 6 to 18 oz/yd 2 ). In the crowfoot satin weave, one warp yarn weaves over three and under one fill yarn. It is used primarily in unidirectional fabrics for fishing rod reinforcement. Crowfoot weave fabrics also conform easily to contoured...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and their ranges for the three types of glass fibers that have been produced and used in composites. Table 2 Compositional ranges for glass fibers used in composite materials E-glass range, % (a) S-glass range, % (b) C-glass range, % (c) Silicon dioxide 52–56 65 64–68...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... criteria require the detection of delaminations with a linear dimension larger than 6.4 mm (0.25 in.). Impact damage Loss of compressive strength under static load Ply gap Strength degradation depends on stacking order and location. For [0, 45, 90,–45] 2S laminate, strength is reduced 9% due to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... are used for increasingly complex parts. Figure 23 shows the three categories of thermoplastic welding techniques, and Fig. 24 compares some of the techniques in terms of tensile shear strength. All of these techniques deal with the basic problem of localizing heating to the bond line so that part...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... six key elements in the pultrusion process, the three that precede machine operation are a reinforcement handling system (referred to as creels), a resin impregnation station, and the material forming area. The machine consists of component equipment that heats, consolidates, continuously pulls, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... 10 ). Fig. 10 (a) Unprocessed and (b) thermographic signal reconstruction first-derivative images of a five-ply carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer panel on aluminum honeycomb core with polymer foreign object debris at the skin-core interface In addition to signal enhancement for flaw...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transducers or detection with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) or air-coupled transducers. As shown in Fig. 1 , a laser-ultrasonic transducer typically has three basic elements: a generation laser, a detection laser, and an interferometer, followed by data acquisition and processing electronic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., including the exciter heating at left, the exciter electrical cable heating at lower right, and the resonant mode shape (three faint vertical bars) heating an absorptive coating on the specimen. Vibrothermography was developed in the late 1970s ( Ref 2 ). It came into wider use in the 2000s after...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... and 1312 : Carbon/phenolic shear specimen before and after testing. White lines highlight the interlaminar shear failure in Fig. 1312 . 25× and 10×. Fig. 1313 and 1314 : Carbon/phenolic compression specimen before and after testing. Load was applied parallel to the plane laminate. Note ply...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... reproduced detail. The article describes three generally recognized plaster mold processes, namely, conventional plaster mold casting, the Antioch process, foamed plaster process. Ceramic molding techniques are based on processes that employ permanent patterns and fine-grained zircon and calcined, high...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... oxide while the part is the anode in an electrolytic cell. The three principal types of anodizing processes are (a) chromic, in which the active agent is chromic acid; (b) sulfuric, in which the active agent is sulfuric acid; and (c) hard processes that use sulfuric acid alone or with additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... conditions for three commercial electrolytic brightening processes, as well as for suitable post-treatments, are given in Table 12 . Operating conditions for electrolytes used in electrobrightening are selected to produce the desired selective dissolution and may vary for optimum results on different...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the wave propagating in two rather than three dimensions; on smooth surfaces they exhibit only losses, which depend on material attenuation and beam spreading ( Ref 2 , 3 ). Therefore, Rayleigh waves can be highly beneficial for NDE where propagation over long distances is required ( Ref 6...