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three-phase input machines

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... input voltage, three-phase input machines, inverter-based power sources, short arc gas metal arc welding power sources, and multiple arc power sources are discussed. The article also presents the factors to be considered when selecting a power source. arc welding inverter-based power sources...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... factor. Fig. 7 Schematic showing primary components of a resistance welding machine The input to resistance welding power sources is usually 230 or 460 V utility power delivering single-phase or three-phase alternating current at 60 Hz. All systems require transformers to step down the line...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005559
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... to resistance welding power sources is usually 230 or 460 V utility power delivering single-phase or three-phase ac at 60 Hz. All systems require transformers to step down the line voltage to a relatively low value, with a proportional increase in current. The simplest systems consist of a transformer connected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... axial force levels. The second axial load is basically added to the beginning of the weld cycle to yield a preheating phase. In fact, direct-drive friction welds using three axial loads are more commonly applied than those using a single load.) The spindle is then disengaged from the driving unit...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... current is required and an adequate single-phase ac source is not available, then ac to direct current conversion is employed using a three-phase transformer/rectifier. The most frequently used rectifier systems are the three-phase half-wave and three-phase full-wave types, often supplied as a six-phase...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., radial-axial horizontal rolling machines, four-mandrel mechanical table mills, three-mandrel table mills, and automatic radial-axial multiple-mandrel ring mills. The article provides a discussion on the process control technology and ancillary operations of ring rolling. It describes the methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., grain structure, concentration profile, pores, casting defects, etc. Imperial College London, U.K. http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/advancedalloys/software PrecipiCalc PrecipiCalc calculates three-dimensional multiparticle diffusive precipitation kinetics of multiple phases. PrecipiCalc adopts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
.... Fig. 2 Plot of selected parameters versus time relative to the three phases of the direct-drive FRW process The forging phase starts at the instant when higher pressure (that is, a larger forging force) is applied in the weld cycle. Thus, the forging phase actually starts somewhere...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... device will be used (see Fig. 5 ). The input parameters typically will be 480 Vac, the number of phases (single phase, three phases, or six phases), and the maximum power capability of the unit. The output voltage, current, frequency, and power are all dictated by the type of resonant load the power...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) of the projections must be held to close tolerances to obtain consistent weld quality. When making simultaneous projection welds, the projection layout will be dictated by the shunt current paths, which may not coincide with the desired location. Press-type machines, with either single-phase or three-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... the metal to conform to the subsequent closed dies, to conserve the expensive input metal, and/or to assist in overall microstructural development. The hot deformation processes conducted during the forging of all three classes of titanium alloys and titanium aluminides form an integral part...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., packing, and cooling stages may be made for accurate numerical simulation results ( Ref 14 ). Figure 1 shows a typical procedure for computer simulation of the PIM process, which consists of three components: input data, analysis, and output data. The quality of the input data is essential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... by the distance normal to the surface). Figure 37 is one example of the stress input. Of these five changes, the first three had the most significant effect on modeling predictions. The last two had a smaller effect. The plots shown in Fig. 23 , Fig. 24 , Fig. 25 are a small sample of all the results...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... choice of features enabled the ANN to mimic the expert with reasonable accuracy. The successful development of this ANN was another indication that ANNs could seriously aid in projecting laboratory results into field predictions. The ANN developed in this project had three independent input vectors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
.... Historical trial-and-error methods of alloy design are extremely costly, time-consuming, and often result in less than optimal or robust results. The simulation of alloy phases and phase diagrams can thus be a critical first step in computational alloy design. The articles “Commercial Alloy Phase Diagrams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... showing the three heat-transfer regions. Source: Ref 169 Fig. 73 Hardness distribution (HRC). (a) Reference design. (b) Optimum design. Source: Ref 169 Fig. 74 Maximum principal residual stress (MPa). (a) Reference design. (b) Optimum design. Source: Ref 169 Fig. 77...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... in the three bars by loading and unloading the assembly, bar 3 is removed, by (for example) machining. As shown in Fig. 4(a) and 4(b) , a redistribution of stresses in the remaining two bars takes place. The resultant stresses at the centroids of the two bars become −14.8 MPa (−2.14 ksi) in bar 1, and 14.8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... as input: phase-field simulations and finite-element modeling (FEM). The usefulness of these methods is described and examples of image-based simulations are given. Two recent review articles in the MRS Bulletin on Three-Dimensional Materials Science ( Ref 10 ) covering 3-D image-based modeling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., grating and concrete rein-forcing mesh. Press-type machines, with either single-phase or three-phase transformers, usually are used for projection welding. The welding head in these machines is guided by bearings or ways and moves in a straight line. Platens with T-slots or tapped holes are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005575
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... pressure as a function of time for a typical weld. The time required to stop the spindle is also an important variable, because it affects the weld temperature and the timing of the forging force. Fig. 3 Plot of selected parameters versus time relative to the three phases of the direct-drive...