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three-dimensional surface cracks

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in.) deep. (d) Comparison of the three grinding conditions. All at 1000× Surface alterations produced in machining are known to affect the fatigue and stress-corrosion properties of many materials. Extensive investigations have been performed on high-strength steels, and data illustrating the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001317
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface areas of 300 to 700 m 2 /g (7 to 17 ft 2 /lb), both of which primarily depend on the type of zeolite. Zeolites have a three-dimensional framework structure with this empirical formula: M x / n + n [ ( AlO 2 ) x ( SiO 2 ) y ] ⋅ w H 2 O...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
.... Total surface roughness in the image area should not exceed approximately 6 μm for many systems. Typical applications for AFM include: High-resolution three-dimensional surface topography Roughness measurements for polished surfaces Analysis of microscopic phase distribution in polymers...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... workpiece materials is also a function of the type of workpiece material. Figure 8 shows the surface finish for three different work materials. For materials with low fracture toughness, such as alumina, the surface finish obtained is poor compared to the surface finishes obtained on hot-pressed silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... drawing lubricants, rust-preventive oils, and quenching and lubricating oils, can be effectively removed by several different cleaners. Table 6 lists cleaning methods frequently used for removing oils and greases. Cutting and grinding fluids used for machining may be classified into three groups...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hardness readings. It is recommended that at least three hardness readings be taken at each level below the surface and averaged to determine effective case depth. Carburizing of P/M steels is usually done at temperatures between 900 to 930 °C (1650 to 1705 °F). Time cycles are normally short because of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... article discusses the procedures used for pickling nickel and nickel alloys. It discusses three different surface conditions for pickling these nickel alloys: bright annealed white surface requiring removal of tarnish by flash pickling; bright annealed oxidized surface requiring removal of a layer of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pearlitic structure is desired. High-alloy iron contains over three percent alloy content and is commercially classified separately. As indicated above, high-alloy irons may be a type of white iron, gray iron, or ductile iron. The matrix may be ferritic, pearlitic, martensitic, or austenitic, depending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... for disposal. Pickling at the steel mill removes the oxide scale that forms during annealing. Mill pickling also removes manganese sulfides or other inclusions in the surface and removes surface layers that may have been depleted of chromium during annealing. ASTM A 380 ( Ref 1 ) lists three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... to produce a sufficiently smooth surface. Alloys containing silicon, such as sand castings, should be acid-etched with a 2 to 5% aqueous solution of hydrofluoric acid prior to anodizing. Compositions and operating conditions for three acid etching solutions are: Solution 1 Nitric acid 3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... oxide while the part is the anode in an electrolytic cell. The three principal types of anodizing processes are (a) chromic, in which the active agent is chromic acid; (b) sulfuric, in which the active agent is sulfuric acid; and (c) hard processes that use sulfuric acid alone or with additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic phases, respectively, and I (hkl) is the integrated intensity for the (hkl) diffraction peak. For the high-angle (400) peaks, a deconvolution routine was used first to separate the three overlapping peaks. Not all TBCs need to be made from homogeneous 6 to 9 wt% YSZ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is M = σ φ d 0 h k l [(1 + ν hkl )/ E hkl ] .The stress of the coating can then be determined by: (Eq 12) σ φ = M / { d 0 h k l [ ( 1 + ν h k l ) / E h k l ] } For a material in a three-dimensional (triaxial) stress state...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ultrasonic agitation, to avoid the hazards and environmental concerns of organic solvents. Additional information is available in the Section “Surface Cleaning” in this Volume. Three methods of surface roughening for thermal spray are widely used: rough threading, grit blasting, and a combination of rough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Additive manufacturing (AM) is the process of joining materials to make parts from three-dimensional (3D) model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing and formative manufacturing methodologies. This article discusses various defects in AM components...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection of parts, generation of a three-dimensional image of the object, per se, is of little value. Furthermore, for opaque materials, optical holography is strictly limited to surface observations. Hence, if optical holography is to be used for nondestructive inspection, supplementary means must be used...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... reproduced detail. The article describes three generally recognized plaster mold processes, namely, conventional plaster mold casting, the Antioch process, foamed plaster process. Ceramic molding techniques are based on processes that employ permanent patterns and fine-grained zircon and calcined, high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... thickness measurement locations and values determined with automated software Fig. 12 Three-dimensional surface image of a turbine blade generated from computed tomography data The sensitivity of CT to density differences of a fraction of 1% can be applied to a number of materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract A thermosetting resin, or thermoset, is a synthetic organic polymer that cures to a solid, infusible mass by forming a three-dimensional network of covalent chemical bonds. Significant applications include construction and thermoset engineering plastics. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., fracture mechanics analyses can be limited to linear elastic treatments. Three modes of loading can be distinguished for a component containing a crack ( Fig. 20 ). Mode I is the opening or tensile mode, in which the crack surface displacements are normal to the crack plane. For mode II, the sliding or...