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three-dimensional printing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article describes two rapid tooling technologies, namely, direct rapid tooling and indirect rapid tooling, for forging-die applications. Commonly used direct rapid tooling technologies include selective laser sintering, three-dimensional printing, and laser-engineered net shape...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article reviews various rapid prototyping (RP) processes, such as stereolithography, powder sintering, hot melt extrusion, sheet lamination, solid ground curing, and three-dimensional printing. It discusses various material prototypes produced by RP technology. The list of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Material extrusion systems are the most common types of additive manufacturing systems, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printers. This article focuses on the general 3D printing processes as can be demonstrated and manipulated in desktop printers. The discussion includes details...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... melting, and binder jet three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and feedstock methods, such as fused-filament fabrication and thermoplastic 3-D printing. It discusses the characteristics, processing steps, properties, advantages, limitations, and applications of these technologies. binder jetting...
Book Chapter

By Don Smith
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Vat polymerization (VP) is an additive manufacturing (AM), or three-dimensional (3-D) printing process in which 3-D objects are produced by hardening a liquid polymer into the desired shape. With the introduction of new materials and improvements in material properties, VP offers a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0009211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article reviews the emerging manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free-form fabrication, three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and so on. It provides a broad contextual overview of metallic AM. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... consuming and fraught with processing variables. Three-dimensional (3D) printing enables rapid evolution in design, personalization, and so on. Metal additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, including fusion-based (laser/electron powder bed fusion [PBF]) and nonmelting-based (extrusion and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... publications can be found in the Appendix. Fig. 2 Number of publications per year, without filtering for number of citations With a wide range of printable materials, a variety of prototype devices have been printed. Passive components include capacitors, sensors, and even three dimensional (3D...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... procedure for solving structural problems based on the principle of virtual work. The article discusses continuum elements, such as hexahedra, pentahedra, tetrahedra, quadrilaterals, and triangles, commonly used in three- or two-dimensional domains. It discusses structural elements such as beam element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that generates a three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric image of a test piece. This article illustrates the basic principles of CT and provides information on the types, applications, and capabilities of CT systems. A comparison of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract A thermosetting resin, or thermoset, is a synthetic organic polymer that cures to a solid, infusible mass by forming a three-dimensional network of covalent chemical bonds. Significant applications include construction and thermoset engineering plastics. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... cover. The power supply consists of the following: transformers, frequency converters, capacitor banks, and power cables and furnace coils. The peripheral components comprise recooling device, charging system, and skimming devices. The article also presents a three-dimensional representation of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006574
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... Abstract Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state hybrid manufacturing technique that leverages the principles of ultrasonic welding, mechanized tape layering, and computer numerical control (CNC) machining operations to create three-dimensional metal parts. This article begins...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... translates to a corresponding loss in the dimensional accuracy of castings. Proper construction of wood patterns and the use of plywood can inhibit warpage somewhat. Fig. 6 Effects of moisture content of wood and atmospheric humidity on the expansion and shrinkage of three pattern woods Good...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003462
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... this lack of success centers around the fact that standard lamination theory is unable to predict the three-dimensional state of stress that exists in laminates near free edges and other discontinuities, such as holes, cut-outs, and ply drop-offs. Various approaches can be used, however, to predict...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... combining different CE resins or blending them with other thermosets or thermoplastics, or by adding catalysts, fillers, and flow and toughness modifiers. Cure, or conversion to a thermoset, occurs by cyclotrimerization of three functional groups to produce a triazine ring. The cured polymer forms a three...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... LED and AED appear in published literature, VED should be used, because it represents how the power is dissipated to melt materials in three-dimensional space. Glass spheres were used to shot peen AlSi10Mg produced by direct metal laser sintering (DMLS, a powder bed fusion process). As-built...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... in terms of the wear theory outlined in this article. Fig. 2 Impact wear testing apparatuses. (a) Ballistic impact wear tester with three projectile bays located 120° apart. (b) Pivotal hammering tester, where three hammers impact a polymer sheet The wear scar can be measured by removing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... coverage of particular materials classes, properties, phenomena, or application areas. In contrast, sources of data on crystallography, thermodynamics, and analytical information receive scant attention. Three different types of source are coded as C, computer readable; D, data center; and P, print...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Adhesion of the copper deposit to the substrate is typically controlled by proper surface preparation. Typically the first two or three steps in the plating process prepare the surface in a gross manner. The subsequent steps of conditioning, microetch (for PWBs), catalyzation, and acceleration ensure that...