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three-dimensional microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Three-dimensional microscopy can be used to reveal the shape, distribution, and connectivity of three-dimensional (3D) features that lie buried within an opaque material. This article discusses several experimental techniques that can be used to generate 3D images. These include serial...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy images of the microstructures of (a) 316L stainless steel, (b) cast Co-Cr-Mo (ASTM F75), (c) CP-Ti (ASTM F67), (d) Ti-6Al-4V (ASTM F136), and (e) NiTi (ASTM F2063). All images show domelike oxide film structure. Scan size, 5 μm×5 μm; pitch angle More
Image
Published: 01 June 2012
Fig. 12 Atomic force microscopy three-dimensional image of the surface texture of a titanium-nitride-coated electrode More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field evaporation can...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 10 Three-dimensional reconstruction of cementite lamellas in pearlite. Connections between lamellas are often too small to be resolved easily by optical microscopy. Source: Ref 27 More
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
Fig. 11 Calcium phosphate (CAP) scaffold fabricated by the vat-photopolymerization-based printing process for bone regeneration. (a) Three-dimensional scaffold design based on the critical defect of a long bone. (b) The CAP-based scaffold with cultured stem cell was implanted into the long More
Image
Published: 12 September 2022
Fig. 12 Electrospun type I calfskin collagen, (a) scanning electron micrograph (SEM) onto a static, cylindrical mandrel, cut edges of the matrix illustrate the porous, three-dimensional nature of the scaffold; (b) detailed SEM; (c) SEM isolated from human placenta; (d) transmission electron More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003721
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... An outline of deformation and annealing structures Grain Structure Grains are small crystals (crystallites) that form a three-dimensional aggregate; they are normally viewed in sections, which by their nature are limited to two dimensions. The main characteristics of a grain structure are grain...
Image
Published: 15 June 2020
at 1330 °C (2425 °F). (c) SEM image of sample after the debinding process. (d) Profile of a transducer. PF-CPE, printing-focused concave-shaped piezoelectric element; SMA, subminiature version A. (e) Image of three-dimensional-segment annular array with 64 pillars that were irregularly distributed. Source More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., crystal structure in epitaxial growth, film-growth kinetics, grain size and boundary, microstructure, reconstruction, segregation Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) Probes made of various materials Laser light, electrical current, or other probe-sample interactions Three-dimensional image with atomic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of solidification microstructures in alloys: two-dimensional x-ray topography, two-dimensional x-ray radiography, and ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray tomography. X-Ray Topography X-ray topography is a diffraction-based imaging technique, in principle, the x-ray variant of dark-field microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., as shown in Fig. 3(b) , to further measure the three-dimensional (3-D) topography, a point sensor is raster scanned over a surface with two moving axes. Several further effects of 3-D measurement must be considered when analyzing the data. First there is the issue of having an accurate starting point...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... input and used in the simulations. Three-Dimensional Characterization Methods The article by Kral et al. ( Ref 1 ) provides a detailed review of 3-D microscopy, from which much of this section is adapted, with additions where necessary to update certain advances in techniques and algorithms since...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... information on the factors applicable to the accuracy and precision of AFM measurements. It ends by discussing the applications for AFMs in the fields of science, technology, and engineering. precision atomic force microscopy Overview Introduction There are three general types of microscopes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... is an advanced three-dimensional modeling, image processing, and measurement software for magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, positron emission tomography, microscopy, and scientific and industrial imaging applications. It supports both grayscale and color images stored in DICOM, TIFF, Interfile...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... 50 years ( Fig. 1b , Ref 2 ). Three notable trends in microscopy are: (a) the ever-increasing resolution in the images so that smaller and smaller features such as dislocations and atomic arrangements can be identified and associated with larger scale structures; (b) the ability to see through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of the angle between the primary beam and the sample surface. The resulting contrast is analogous to an optical image in which the light comes from the detector and the observation direction is that of the incident electron beam. The three-dimensional impression in SE images is not only a result of the large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...?). Material microstructures are three-dimensional and, therefore, the attributes of three-dimensional microstructural geometry are of core interest. Nonetheless, as most of the materials are opaque, the microstructural observations are usually on the two-dimensional (2-D) metallographic sections through...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... microscopy three-dimensional image of the surface texture of a titanium-nitride-coated electrode The data for AFM images are collected as the probe is scanned in a raster pattern across the sample to form a map of the measured property relative to the X - Y position. Thus, the AFM microscopic image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... melting, and binder jet three-dimensional (3-D) printing, and feedstock methods, such as fused-filament fabrication and thermoplastic 3-D printing. It discusses the characteristics, processing steps, properties, advantages, limitations, and applications of these technologies. binder jetting...