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three-dimensional braiding

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Image
Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 6 Net-shape structures produced by three-dimensional braiding More
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 11 Unit cell geometry of three-dimensional braid. (a) Unit cell. (b) Unit cell cross section at z = 1 2 h z . (c) Unit cell cross section at z = 3 8 h z . (d) Unit cell cross section at z = 1 4 h z . (e) Unit cell cross section at z = 1 8 More
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 15 Effect of impact energy on damage area of three-dimensional braid comingled and laminated carbon-PEEK composites More
Book Chapter

By Frank K. Ko
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract Braided structures are unique in their high level of conformability, torsional stability, and damage resistance. This article describes the classifications of braiding such as two-dimensional braiding and three-dimensional braiding. It presents the governing equations for computer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and three-dimensional braiding. braiding mechanical properties three-dimensional braid composites two-dimensional braid composites BRAIDING is a textile process that is known for its simplicity and versatility. Braided structures are unique in their high level of conformability, torsional...
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 14 Effect of impact energy level on compression after impact strength for three-dimensional braid comingled and laminated carbon-PEEK composites More
Image
Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 10 Formation of a rectangular three-dimensional track and column braid, using 4 tracks, 8 columns, and 1 × 1 braiding pattern More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fiber configurations include continuous and discontinuous, woven, unidirectional tape, and three-dimensional braided preforms. Fiber materials include graphite, glass, aramid, and others. The fiber configuration and material are major components when analyzing the mechanics of fiber-reinforced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... mandrels Three-dimensional woven/filament wound carbon/carbon (also braided) Phenolic, pitch, and furan resins convertible with inert atmosphere heat to densified carbon char Carbon (rayon, pan, pitch base), graphite fiber prior processed to 1650–2760 °C (3000–5000 °F) for fiber weaving dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... can be designed into the part. Therefore, drape limits the amount of compound curvature. This is separate from the concern of laying a planar material on a doubly curved mold or the reverse problem of representing in two dimensions a three-dimensional surface without distortions. Typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... into the part. Therefore, drape limits the radius of curvature in any given direction. This is separate from the concern of laying a planar material on a doubly curved mold or the reverse problem of representing in two dimensions a three-dimensional surface without distortions. Typically, thermoplastic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... ). A preform of reinforcement fibers, such as a stampable glass mat, enters the process as a roll of flat sheet material and is preformed into a three-dimensional geometry by means of a shaping die. This stampable reinforcement technology has been reported in Ref 1 and 2 . After forming, the preform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... are the starting point in most cases. With prepregs, composite manufacturing may be batchwise or more or less continuous. In batch techniques, the route from prepreg to final component may be divided into three basic steps: layup, consolidation, and molding. In the first step the number of prepreg plies required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... sandwich construction. Unlike prepregs, liquid molding is relatively flexible in its use of different reinforcement styles. Thus, textile techniques such as braiding or three-dimensional weaving can be used to provide other fiber architectures. Braiding is useful for closed sections (especially tubular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... to develop a wide variety of beam, plate, shell, plane stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, and three-dimensional (3-D) solid elements. In a FEA, the structure is represented as an assemblage of a finite number of elements. The principle of virtual work forms the basis of displacement-based FE...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... for sectioning as needed. Stereo- and Three-Dimensional Digital Microscope Examinations If a sample is small enough, stereo- and three-dimensional (3D) digital microscope examinations can be performed. However, samples are typically large and require some sectioning. Different types of saws can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... (three-dimensional) orthogonal weaves, or multidirectional weaves and braids. The fiber architecture selected depends on the properties desired in the composite. Multidirectional C-C composites containing reinforcing fibers in three or more directions are advantageous because their fiber architecture can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... methods are described subsequently. Bonded Tabs The stress field near the termination of a bonded tab is significantly three-dimensional, and critical stresses tend to peak at this location. Much research has been done on minimizing peak stresses, but it is impossible to make general...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... For example, more restrictive, unidirectional methods for braided or three-dimensional woven structures may be unnecessary because these materials tend to be isotropic. An important concern in testing of composites is the overall failure processes that occur in laminates. In particular cases for which...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Materials There are few limits on the composition of reinforcement fibers that can be woven into three-dimensional preforms; if a material can be made into a fiber, it can probably be woven into some type of three-directional preform. Fibers that have been woven into three-directional preforms include...