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thin-film deposition

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thin films of materials that could not be deposited by other PVD techniques. Much of the current research on PLD is due to the success realized with high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials. In 1986 ( Ref 4 ), the discovery of ceramic superconductors was soon followed by an intense search for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., high thermal conductivity (1.5 times that of silver), high packing density, good visible and infrared transparency, and chemical inertness, has long provided a goal for the thin film deposition community. Diamond is a carbon material with a specific crystallographic structure (diamond structure) and...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... been used extensively for: Since the discovery of sputtering by W.R. Grove in the mid-1800s, a number of sputter deposition techniques have been developed to deposit thin films of various materials, and much has been written about these techniques ( Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 30 , 31 ). The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Typically, radio-frequency (rf) glow discharges used for the deposition of thin films operate at frequencies between 50 kHz to 13.56 MHz and at pressures of 0.1 to 2.0 torr. The plasma density (i.e., the density of ions and free electrons) is in the range of 10 8 to 10 12 cm −3 . The degree of ionization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposition rates depend on the material to be deposited and are considerably less than for systems based on an electron beam. Ion-beam-sputtering systems are particularly suited to highly controlled, thin-film, multilayer coating applications, where up to six different sputtering targets can be sequentially...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., reactivities of the residual gases and depositing species, and the tolerable impurity level in the deposit. Vacuum deposition of a film was first reported by Faraday in 1857 using exploding wires. Nahrwold was the first to use thermal evaporation in a vacuum to produce a thin film, in 1887. Vacuum deposition...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... below. The coatings used for wear applications are usually hard compounds, and, from the engineer's point of view, thin-film wear coatings can be used for the same type of applications as chromium electroplate. Physical vapor deposition coatings have hardnesses greater than any metal and are used in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) involves the formation of a coating by the reaction of the coating substance with the substrate. Serving as an introduction to CVD, the article provides information on metals, ceramics, and diamond films formed by the CVD process. It further discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thermodynamics vapor-phase growth CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (CVD) is the deposition of thin, solid films from gas-phase precursors. Growth usually occurs through heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by a heated surface, although homogeneous reactions also can occur in the gas phase. Gas-phase, or parasitic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... thin film vapor deposition X-ray diffraction BOTH METALLURGY AND MATERIALS SCIENCE are concerned with the relationship between structure and the macroscopic properties of materials. Structure can be important at different levels. For example, on the atomic scale, structure dictates the strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Measuring the thickness of thin films can be accomplished in many ways. This article focuses on the optical method of single-wavelength ellipsometry, two multiple-wavelength methods of reflectometry and spectroscopic ellipsometry for measuring the thickness of thin films. The general...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... uniaxial creep testing uniaxial tensile testing THE TERM “THIN FILMS” is usually applied to metallic and nonmetallic layers of thickness of the order of microns or fractions of microns that are deposited on a variety of substrates. Their mechanical resistance is of particular interest, because high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... ultrathin SiO 2 layers on silicon were disclosed by high-resolution XPS ( Ref 56 ). Reactions at interfaces can be directly studied by AES and XPS depth profiling. An example is shown in Fig. 14 for a thin-film structure of Si-Ni-Si (each layer about 50 nm thick) sputter deposited on a Si(111...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... lengths and conditions of application. When properly prepared paint materials are used, the hot spray method may have three distinct advantages over conventional spraying: Little or no solvent is used for thinning, reducing labor and solvent costs. Thicker films can be applied using fewer gun...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the elemental concentration and to σ. Because this bubble material is an insulator, a thin film of aluminum was deposited on top of it before analysis to provide a return path for the beam current. Therefore, the backscattering signal of each element was shifted toward lower energies by an amount...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., coefficient of thermal expansion; CVD, chemical vapor deposition; EBPVD, electron-beam physical vapor deposition Fig. 3 Calculated thermal stresses for thin coatings on high-performance carbon-carbon laminates. Ratio of substrate thickness to coating thickness = 20 The coating system used on...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article begins with a list of the factors that influence the properties of physical vapor deposited films. It describes the steps involved in ion plating, namely, surface preparation, nucleation, interface formation, and film growth. The article discusses the factors influencing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... multitude of products, although the amount in which it is present is usually relatively small as a percentage of the total. Most manufacturers use some tin, and it is an essential material in industries such as communications, transportation, agriculture, food processing, and construction. A thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... definition of electroless plating thus eliminates both those solutions that spontaneously plate on all surfaces (homogeneous chemical reduction), such as silver mirroring solutions, and immersion plating solutions, which deposit by displacement a very thin film of a relatively noble metal onto the surface of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., photons may also dissociate molecules (e.g., SiH 4 + hν (147 nm) → SiH 3 + H and SiH 2 + H 2 ) ( Ref 36 ). Either direct photolysis or mercury-photosensitized decomposition of reactants is used to prepare thin films in photo-CVD processes. One of the most difficult tasks in CVD modeling is to find...