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thin foils

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... a nonmagnetic substrate, such as silicon or stainless steel, be used wherever possible. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies require very thin specimens (5–500 nm, or 0.2–20 μin.), depending on the material. These specimens of foil must be prepared from the bulk of the coating or...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... second-phase microconstituents present in irregular forms in the ingot are fragmented into more equiaxed particles, which tend to align in the direction of greatest extension. The grains are usually also elongated in this direction and thinned or flattened in flat rolled products, in thin extruded...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and washers. As a coating on wire or sheet metal, lead acts as a drawing lubricant, and in the form of powder, it imparts lubricity to antiseize compounds and engine bearings. The malleability of lead is used to greatest advantage in the manufacture of foil; lead foil often is rolled as thin as 0.01...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., elastic scattering is more probable in high-atomic-number materials at low beam energy. Elastic scattering is responsible for both electron diffraction (thin foils) and the generation of BEs (bulk samples in SEM and thin specimens in TEM). Coherent elastic scattering of electrons in the forward direction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... measured experimentally by passing the ion beam through a thin foil of thickness Δ x and measuring the energy loss Δ E ; it also can be calculated theoretically. Energy loss produces the depth perception for RBS. The value of dE / dx is a function of projectile, target, their atomic numbers, mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... products from blooms, billets, and slabs. It describes two methods for shapes or sections: universal rolling and caliber rolling. The article provides information on two-high mills and three-high mills. Specialty mills for thin sheets, namely, the Sendzimir mill and planetary mill, are discussed. The...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Honeycomb is a product consisting of very thin sheets attached to form connecting cells. This article briefly explains the construction, core characteristics, properties, and testing methods of the honeycomb structures. It discusses the special processes used to custom fit the shape of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...-structure development is depicted in Fig. 3 and 4 . These thin-foil specimens were prepared parallel to the rolling plane of the strip for examination by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fig. 3 Fe-3Si single crystal, cold rolled 5% in the (111)[11 2 ] orientation. Trails of small dislocation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... capable of further growth Fig. 2 Dislocations, which have “knitted” themselves into small-angle subboundaries, in a specimen of unalloyed nickel that was cold rolled to a reduction of 8% and then annealed for 2 h at 600 °C (1110 °F). Thin-foil transmission electron microscopy specimen. Original...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... (79 μin.) is shown in Fig. 13 . This grain size was developed to increase the definition of the front for study by thin-foil transmission electron microscopy. However, the features shown here are characteristic of those observed over a wide range of grain sizes. In the unyielded region ahead of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... Etched in 60% ethanol, 30% n -butanol, 10% perchloric acid (70%). TEM thin foil, 76,800× (J.K. Tien, V.C. Nardonne, and D. Matejczyk, Columbia University). Fatigue fracture of Nimonic 115 at room temperature and 845 °C (1550 °F). Thermal treatment: solution treat 24 h at 1230 °C (2250 °F...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... 1a ). Fig. 1 Characteristic emission spectra from an x-ray sealed tube. (a) Without a filter. (b) With a thin-foil monochromator and a crystal monochromator Synchrotrons and X-FELs are large-scale installations to partly replace and highly complement the laboratory sources. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...-mixture values. (Compare with Fig. 1256 and 1257 .) Fracture surface reveals interlaminar failure of the aluminum matrix (features of this type are usually obliterated in conventional metallography). Inadequate bonding between matrix foils may have been caused by thin surface oxides that did not...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... thin foils where the specimen is tilted so that the width of the cementite lamellae is as thin as possible and parallel to the electron beam. A large number of such colonies must be measured to obtain good statistical data. Pearlite that forms isothermally exhibits a much narrower range of true...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... specimen-holder chamber of the microscope. Transparency to electrons is provided by plastic or carbon replicas of the fracture surface. Fractures are usually too rough to permit electrolytic thinning although alternative and more direct techniques for the examination of ion-milled, thin-foil transverse...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... microscopy (thin foil) views of AISI 8620 alloy steel after tempering at various temperatures. All specimens were water quenched from 900 °C (1650 °F) prior to tempering. Light microscopy: 2% nital, 500×; TEM: 25,000× Fig. 9 Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (thin foil) views of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... a point, a line, or a plane. For example, the region for a plane source can be envisioned as a thin plate with thickness δ x . However, the plane source of solute refers to the limit as δ x → 0 . As a result, equations for an instantaneous source have the property that the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... to cover teeth with thin gold leaf for what is assumed to be decorative purposes around the same 2000 to 2700 B.C. time period ( Ref 22 , 24 ). Early evidence of gold wire used for prosthetic dentistry includes two Phoenician specimens found near Sidon and dated to at least 500 B.C. that used gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the majority of the microelectronics industry. This section also considers germanium, gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the various epitaxial thin film semiconductors that can be grown on single-crystal wafer substrates. These materials are characterized first by their single-crystal nature and lack of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... metallized layer on this IC produced a thin oxide layer that promoted voltage “punchthrough” and failure (center). SEM, 800×. Fig. 1329 : Shown here is a base emitter for input transistors. The cracklike defect at center was caused by electrical discharge across the junction. SEM, 3360× (R.J. Schwinghamer...