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thick-walled cylinder testing

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... through the test piece. This technique requires subsequent development of the exposed film/paper so that the image is visible. Radiography is used extensively for evaluation of large components (e.g., steel castings) that exhibit a difference in thickness or physical density ( Ref 3 ). Unlike liquid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The load should be applied in such a way that the direction of loading and the test surface are perpendicular to each other within 2°. The thickness of the workpiece being tested should be such that no bulge or mark showing the effect of the load appears on the side of the workpiece opposite the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cobalt Ultrasonic testing (UT) High-frequency vibrations are introduced into sample. Waves are reflected or scattered by discontinuities. In many cases, UT may be used to detect, size, and image flaws. Cracks, laps, thickness/wall thinning, pitting, erosion/corrosion, voids, delamination. Works best...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... No Sample requirements Vacuum-compatible materials Solids transparent to electrons, 100–2000 Å thick Solid conductors and insulators Solids, powders, composites Solids, liquids, or gases Almost all types Vacuum-compatible solids Solid conductors and coated insulators ≤5.0 cm in diameter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... containing candidate coating systems are mounted at a known angle at the base of a guide tube. The coating is subjected to falling abrasive through a funnel and the guide tube. The thickness of the coating is measured prior to testing. The test is completed when a predetermined quantity of abrasive is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... service duration or material specifications were provided. Visual examination revealed that all the cracks occurred adjacent to stiffening ribs and at changes in section thickness. One of the cracks is shown in Fig. 5(a) . A crack that was opened to permit examination is shown in Fig. 5(b) . All...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., elevated-temperature resistance, etc.) is the most common type of design deficiency. Materials can exhibit anisotropy, or variability in properties within a product, such as between the thick and thin portions of a casting or between longitudinal and transverse properties in a wrought material. Note that a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... operations in design. The article describes the factors that control casting tolerances and provides specific tips for designing castings with uniform wall thickness and unequal sections, designing thin sections, designing for economical coring, designing for functional packaging, and core design principles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... at two points, and the two corresponding gradients ( a / b and c / d ) have been evaluated. Note that the gradient varies from 0.8 in the shallow portion of the curve (called the toe) to 5 in the steeper portion of the curve. Two regions of a testpiece that are slightly different in thicknesses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... susceptible to brittle fracture. Cast iron pipe has performed well for many years in transmission and distribution main service, mostly because of its substantial wall thickness and robust joint construction. However, over time and extended exposure to slightly acidic ground water and soil conditions, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... = D 2 h , where h is the specimen thickness at any time in the test. If there is friction at the platen/specimen interface, then the specimen barrels as it deforms ( Fig. 3 ). When the friction is described by the interface friction factor 3 τ i / σ 0 both the slab...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... dependent on defect orientation. Gierl-Mayer ( Ref 12 ) has prepared samples with intentional density variations, cracks, and defects for the calibration and demonstration of the capabilities of digital radiography equipment. Flat bars of constant thickness were pressed for calibration of the radiation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... wall thickness in critical areas of the casting, use of integrally cast test panels equal in thickness to those critical areas, instead of standard test bars, should be considered. ASTM E 8 defines the test bars suitable for evaluation of aluminum castings. The use of test bars cut from die...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of Distortion and Stress Generation during Heat Treatment” in this Volume. Therefore, the averaged size changes must be used for an estimation of the volume change. If, instead of the inner and outer radii, the average radius ( R ) and the wall thickness ( W ) according to: (Eq 2) R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transverse (SH) modes and two families of Lamb wave modes characterized by velocity dispersion; that is, wave velocity depends strongly on the relationship between wavelength and plate thickness. This leads to a rich structure in the received waveform, developing as the wave spreads outward from the source...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (in effect, increasing the section thickness) by judicious placement of flowoffs and risers. Mechanical property values obtained from test bars are sometimes the only available guides to the actual mechanical properties of the metal in production castings. When test bars and castings are both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... shapes because of the variations in preform section thickness. Powder forging involves removing heated preforms from a furnace, usually by robotic manipulators, and locating them in a die cavity for forging at high pressures (690 to 970 MPa, or 100 to 140 ksi). Preforms may be graphite coated to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Increases in grain size also increase the possibility of quench cracking. When the danger of quench cracking is remote (no abrupt changes in section thickness) and engineering considerations permit, it may sometimes appear to be more practical to use a coarser-grained steel rather than a fine-grained or...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... cylindrical tubular products made to standard combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness.) These two broad classifications are subdivided into several named use groups. For example, the term tube covers three such groups: pressure tubes, structural tubing, and mechanical tubing. The term pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... features as: Tubes with integral end fittings Ducts with integral flanges Thin-walled tubes with heavy walled ends Tubes with both thick and thin wall sections, etc. Flow forming can help tubular-product designers meet critical targets for weight and affordability with monolithic...