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thermoforming

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003018
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... Abstract Thermoforming is a manufacturing process in which thermoplastic sheets are heated, softened, clamped onto a mold, and made to conform to the shape of the mold or forming tool. It is ideally suited to large-volume runs of small items. This article focuses on major phases...
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 1 Basic female mold thermoforming (straight vacuum forming). (a) Heated plastic sheet clamped over female mold cavity. (b) Vacuum pulls plastic sheet into mold, bringing it into contact with entire mold surface. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 2 Basic male mold thermoforming (drape forming). (a) Heated plastic sheet in position over male mold. (b) Mold moves against sheet, or sheet is pulled onto mold. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 3 Matched-mold thermoforming. (a) Heated plastic sheet between male and female molds. (b) Male and female molds forced together with sheet between them. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 4 Plug-assist thermoforming. (a) Heat-softened plastic sheet clamped in position above female mold. (b) Plug stretches sheet, pushing it into female mold. (c) Vacuum pulls sheet off the plug and into the female mold. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 5 Pressure bubble plug-assist vacuum thermoforming. (a) Air blown through bottom of mold cavity stretches the sheet into a bubble shape. (b) Plug pushes sheet into cavity. (c) Vacuum draws sheet against mold cavity surface. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 6 Vacuum snapback thermoforming. (a) Heat-softened sheet positioned between male mold and casing cavity. (b) Sag stretches sheet and activates vacuum switch. (c) Vacuum snaps sheet back onto mold. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 7 Air-slip thermoforming. (a) Heated plastic sheet clamped to top of chamber. (b) Pressure buildup from moving mold stretches sheet up. (c) Mold moves to top of chamber. Released pressure allows sheet to drape over mold. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 November 1995
Fig. 8 Trapped-sheet, contact heat, pressure thermoforming. (a) Cold sheet trapped between heated blow plate and female mold. (b) Heated plate closes on mold cavity. Air forces sheet against plate. (c) Vacuum pulls heated sheet into mold cavity. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 51 Examples of thermoforming methods used for superplastic forming. (a) Plug-assisted forming into a female die cavity. (b) Snap-back forming over a male die that is moved up into the sheet More
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Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 52 Thermoforming methods that use gas pressure and movable tools to produce parts from superplastic alloys. (a) Female forming. (b) Male forming More
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Published: 01 January 1997
Fig. 12 Thermoforming (vacuum forming) More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 12 Examples of thermoforming methods used for superplastic forming. (a) Plug-assisted forming into a female die cavity. (b) Snap-back forming over a male die that is moved up into the sheet More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 13 Thermoforming methods that use gas pressure and movable tools to produce parts from superplastic alloys. (a) Female forming. (b) Male forming More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 33 Apparatus for thermoforming superplastic sheet materials using a convex die member to control thinning in forming of a hat configuration More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 34 Apparatus for thermoforming superplastic sheet materials using a concave die member to control thinning in forming of a hat configuration More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... includes the characterization of plastic flow, internal cavitation, and fracture behavior. Processing variables needed for the overall characterization of superplastic behavior are summarized. The article discusses the superplastic forming methods, namely, blow forming, vacuum forming, thermoforming, deep...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-impregnated thermoplastics, and true thermoplastics. It describes the processing methods of thermoplastic composites, including weaving, seaming, autoclaving, preconsolidation, roll consolidation, roll forming/pultruding, thermoforming, press forming, hydroforming, and diaphragm forming. The article provides...
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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 3 Dornier 328 landing flap ribs, thermoformed from pattern blanks. Courtesy of Ten Cate Advanced Composites bv More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Abstract This article describes key processing methods and related design, manufacturing, and application considerations for plastic parts. The methods include injection molding, extrusion, thermoforming, blow molding, rotational molding, compression molding/transfer molding, composites...