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thermodynamic properties

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... purification electrolytic extraction smelting thermodynamic properties electrochemical reactions Abstract This article describes the Bayer process for the purification of alumina. The process includes four major stages: digestion, clarification, precipitation, and calcination. The article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... , Simulation of Thermal Analysis Applied to the Description of the Solidification of Hypereutectic SG Irons , Int. J. Cast Metal. Res. , Vol 11 , 1999 , p 369 – 374 10.1080/13640461.1999.11819301 35. Stefanescu D.M. and Katz S. , Thermodynamic Properties of Iron-Base Alloys , Casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract Thermodynamic descriptions have become available for a large number of alloy systems and allow the calculation of the phase diagrams of multicomponent alloys. This article begins with a discussion on three laws of thermodynamics: the Law of Conservation of Energy, the Second Law of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... article describes the various types of solid solutions such as interstitial solid solutions and substitutional solid solutions. Free energy is important because it determines whether or not a phase transformation is thermodynamically possible. The article discusses the thermodynamics of phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... HEAT TREATMENT is roughly defined as controlled heating and cooling of a solid material, so as to change the microstructure and obtain specific properties. Almost all metals and alloys respond to some form of heat treatment in the broadest sense of this definition, but individual metals and their...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... speed steel T42; other symbols, other high speed steels Abstract Powder metallurgy (PM) high-alloy tool steels (HATS) have unique properties that assist them in solving various problems related to machining of metal components. This article describes the cost-intensive PM processing routes of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-world problems, accounting for material properties, environmental variables, boundary and state conditions, and the primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The article also includes reference data and provides closed-form solutions for common heat-transfer applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... the industry is the increasing number of studies on the calculation of material properties for heat treatment simulations by empirical, semiempirical, neural-network-based, thermodynamics and kinetic theory-based, and multiscale computational materials science techniques ( Ref 127 , 128 , 129 , 130...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... weight. The purpose of quenching is to provide a cooling rate higher than the upper critical cooling rate at a certain depth of a machine component to obtain the required mechanical properties. The rate of heat transfer during quenching depends on the wettability of the liquid quench medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., thermowells, roller and skid rails, conveyor rolls, walking beams, rotary retorts, pit-type retorts, muffles, recuperators, fans, and drive and idler drums. Heat-resistant alloys are supplied in either wrought or cast forms. In some situations, they may be a combination of the two. The properties and costs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.... References 1. Gaskell D.R. , Introduction to the Thermodynamics of Materials , 4th ed. , Taylor & Francis , 2003 2. Birks N. , Meier G.H. , and Pettit F.S. , Introduction to the High-Temperature Oxidation of Metals , 2nd ed. , Cambridge University Press , New York...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... maurer diagram solubility steel thermodynamic properties structural diagrams multicomponent iron-carbon system THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES of cast metals are sensitive to numerous impurities. Because purification of melts generally adds considerable cost to castings, the lowest cost and surest...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article provides accessible information on the thermodynamic properties of liquid aluminum-base and copper-base alloys with the help of phase diagrams. It contains tables that compile thermodynamic data in the form of activities, activity coefficients, partial molar thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... specifics of induction heating and heat treating applications. The article discusses the nonlinear and interrelated nature of a particular heat transfer phenomenon, physical property, and skin effect. It also presents simple case studies and general physical laws governing different heat transfer modes. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... modeling of the phenomena occurring in a process, complemented by in-plant and pilot-plant measurements as well as laboratory measurements (to evaluate transport and/or thermodynamic properties) ( Ref 7 ). A comprehensive review of mathematical models of quenching processes is published by Gür and Şimşir...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... specimens 30 × 120 mm (1.2 × 4.7 in.) and 75 × 100 mm (3 × 4 in.) in diameter. Source: Ref 1 , 7 , 8 Because system pressure affects thermodynamic and transport properties of the fluidizing gas, a pressurized operation yields a lower minimum fluidization velocity and enhances the heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and the applications of EBH. camshafts connecting rods electron beam hardening heat transfer microstructure surface properties ELECTRON BEAM HARDENING (EBH) is one of the most modern surface-hardening technologies, with some special characteristics in comparison to other heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... , and the second critical heat-flux density, q cr2 . Both are inherent properties of any vaporizable liquid. They do not change with the mass, shape, or material of the workpiece. The first critical heat-flux density is the maximum heat-flux density that causes film boiling ( Ref 6 ). Typically, it...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... thermophysical and physical properties, temperature- and strain-rate-dependent mechanical properties, properties for use in the modeling of quench distortion, and properties for use in solidification modeling, is also reviewed. The article also describes the linking of thermodynamic, kinetic, and material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and Steel Research Association , Butterworths, London , 1953 6. Hultgren R. , Orr R.L. , Anderson P.D. , and Kelly K.K. , Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of Metals and Alloys , J. Wiley & Sons , New York , 1963 7. Griffiths E. , Ed., J...