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thermocouple

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003158
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Thermocouple devices are the most widely used devices for measurement of temperature in the metals industry. Favorable characteristics of these devices include good accuracy, suitability over a wide temperature range, fast thermal response, ruggedness, high reliability, low cost, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... monitoring and control of motion and position of various mechanical components with the help of mechanical limit switches, proximity sensors, and distance- and position-measuring devices. Using inputs from both flow meters and sensors, such as thermocouples and oxygen sensors, flow measurement control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... control systems, including contact sensors, noncontact sensors, controllers, energy-flow regulators, measurement instruments, and set-point programmers. Common contact sensors include temperature scales, thermocouples, and resistance temperature detectors, whereas optical pyrometers and on-line radiation...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... inspection devices include bolometers, thermocouples, thermopiles, and meltable substances, whereas radiometers and pyrometers come under the noncontact category. contact thermographic inspection contact thermometric inspection noncontact thermographic inspection noncontact thermometric inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... affect the time required to reach the austenitizing temperatures. Figure 2 (b) ( Ref 5 ) shows the time difference to reach the set-point temperature for both a large load and a large section size. This figure also illustrates the importance of using load thermocouples rather than simply measuring time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... minimize error in the temperature measurement and variability in the casting trials. Once thermocouple data are collected, the calibration-curve method is a simple, robust method for determining values of h ( T ) from thermocouple data for different interface types. The process of collecting T ( t...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... boundary condition ( Eq 17a ) is usually not applicable for modeling quenching operations. Instead, it is common practice to insert thermocouples into an actual part or a laboratory-scale probe to measure the local thermal response at the thermocouple hot junction; from these data it is possible to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... provided. In a manner similar to determining heat-transfer coefficients from the cooling curves of instrumented probes of simple geometry, this method uses parts instrumented with multiple thermocouples and then uses solutions to the inverse conduction problem to determine the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... shown in the dashed blocks. Thermocouples and resistance temperature detectors (also known as resistance thermometers) are the most important contact-type electrical temperature sensors used in the metals industry. Well over 90% of the sensors used in this industry are estimated to be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... precautions ( Ref 5 ): Place the thermocouple directly behind the largest section of the work. Judge temperature of actual work, not loose scale or corners, by looking through the slightly open door of the furnace, not the peephole. Allow approximately 5 minutes per 25 mm (1 in.) of section for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Fig. 7 is suggested. The basic components are a thermocouple, located approximately 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) below the die cavity surface, a temperature controller that determines whether the temperature as measured at the thermocouple location is above or below a setpoint temperature, a solenoid valve to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ferromagnetic core inside the LVDT conductive coil generates an electric signal by Faraday’s law of induction that is calibrated to microscopic displacement. A thermocouple parallel to the pushrod reports the temperature of the specimen. Water cooling is often used to maintain the LVDT at a reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... instrumented with a type K spring-loaded thermocouple inserted to the geometric center to assure contact between the thermocouple and steel throughout the entire quenching cycle. A 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) stainless steel tube is tungsten inert gas welded to one end of the bar to protect the thermocouple...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... inside a furnace. A thermoelement is placed in the center of the melt to measure the temperature of the sample, T s . Another thermocouple is placed at the wall of the furnace; the purpose of this thermocouple is to regulate the temperature of the furnace, T f , as a function of time. The furnace is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... protective atmosphere. The test specimen is typically a round bar where the length is at least four times the diameter (a so-called infinite cylinder that minimizes end-cooling effects). Cooling curves are generated by inserting thermocouples into the desired locations of the test specimens. Two common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and controlled by thermocouples, which may be attached on the specimen surface or located very close to the specimen. In some cases, temperature is measured by optical or infrared pyrometers. Accurate measurement and control is very critical for obtaining reliable data. To this end, the use of closed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... clamp is measured and not the deformation of the sample. In this case, the modulus that is measured will be too small. Samples that are clamped above the glass transition temperature and then cooled to below the glass transition should be re-clamped at the start temperature. The thermocouple must...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.../Nanmac probe ( Ref 8 ), which measures and records cooling at various positions in an actual part. The probe measures 50 mm in diameter by 200 mm long and is made of AISI type 304 stainless steel. It is instrumented with three thermocouples at its midlength cross section, which measure temperature at the...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Thermocouple placement in the quench should be such that it best approximates the average temperature of the salt in a maximum mass load. A secondary monitoring thermocouple should be provided to assure that the salt temperature has not exceeded the system minimum or maximum salt temperature. The thermocouple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperature measurement is normally accomplished with thermocouples located in the vicinity of the heating elements. Usually a minimum of two thermocouples are employed, one for the furnace control and a second for over-temperature protection. In practice, the size of the hot zone may dictate multiple zone...