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thermal undercooling

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
.... The article describes various undercooling methods, including kinetic undercooling, thermal undercooling, constitutional undercooling, and pressure undercooling. For solidification to occur, nuclei must form in the liquid. The article discusses the various types of nucleation: homogeneous nucleation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... the equilibrium (melting) temperature occurs. The article details five types of solidification undercooling, namely, kinetic, thermal, constitutional (solutal), curvature, and pressure undercooling. It explains the types of nucleation which occur in the melt during solidification. The effects of local...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Observed characteristics of potential nucleant compounds Table 1 Observed characteristics of potential nucleant compounds Compound Crystallographic relationships Lattice disregistry, % Ref Undercooling (Δ T ) (a) Ref a direction b direction °C °F Al 3 Ti (221)Al...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... , temperature of eutectic recalescence; Δ T , recalescence; Δ T max , maximum undercooling; and Δ T min , minimum undercooling ( Ref 9 ). Fig. 3 Typical terminology used in thermal analysis for casting process control. See text for description. Source: Ref 9 The heat extraction, dQ / dt...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... velocity is controlled by constitutional undercooling and interface energy. Since the thermal and solute gradients in the liquid are negative, constitutional supercooling will always be present to cause the interface to become unstable. The interface energy will initially stabilize the spherical nucleus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... model. It can be omitted as a separate step, and the simulation course only consists of thermal and mechanical simulation. Mechanical properties of the undercooled states are a necessary prerequisite for this model. The simplified heat treatment model according to Fig. 5 has been used to simulate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... the predicted and the observed ferrite contents in standard thermal cups Fig. 17 Nucleation potential evolution with holding time after inoculation Fig. 18 Undercooling that produces carbides in the standard thermal analysis cup. TEW, white eutectic temperature Fig. 19 Primary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... The three terms on the right in Eq 5 represent the thermal, solutal (constitutional), and curvature undercooling, respectively. Also, m L is the liquidus slope, C o is the initial alloy composition, k o is the partition coefficient, Γ is the Gibbs-Thomson coefficient, and R t is the dendrite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006316
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., and chilling tendency. It reviews the tensile properties and thermophysical properties of gray cast iron. The article describes the variables that influence molten iron preparation: charge materials, melting furnace thermal regime, chemical composition, modification and inoculation treatment, holding time...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... represents the alloy properties. Stability corresponds to G / V < Δ T o /D. Equation 11 can also be understood as the equality of two lengths: the diffusion length, δ C (= D/ V ), and the thermal length, δ T (= Δ T o / G ) ( Ref 11 ). Fig. 4 Constitutional undercooling. (a) Interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006300
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... and Melting Conditions on Graphite Morphology and Matrix in Fe-C and Ni-C Alloys,” Ph.D. thesis, Waseda University , 2012 30. Nakae I. , Zou Y. , and Sato Y. , Influence of Graphite Morphology, Thermal History and S and Cu on Ferrite/Pearlite Formation in Cast Iron , Proceedings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... of solidification, which describe thermal exchange and fluid flow on the scale of casting processes, are now well advanced and have been used in practice for many years ( Ref 1 , 2 ). A general tendency is to incorporate into such simulations a description of the solidification structures. Various methods are used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., there may be a short zone of dendritic growth, but only in a layer near the cold mold wall where the melt is undercooled. Depending on the thermal conditions, the melting point isotherm will be established somewhere between the hot melt and the cold wall. The solidification of the casting will then proceed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... without the incidence of pinholes. The most important parameters of thermal analysis were beneficially influenced by residual aluminum and consequently resulted in higher eutectic temperatures and a lower degree of undercooling, as well as higher temperature at the end of solidification and a greater...
Book Chapter

By W.L. Johnson
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...). The composition dependence of the enthalpy of mixing of various solid-solution phases (hcp, bcc, and fcc) and the undercooled liquid/amorphous phase are shown. The enthalpy of mixing of the intermetallic compounds is indicated by data points. Fig. 9 Relative change in shear sound velocity in crystalline...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... of the coupled zone near the eutectic temperature is observed only in directional solidification (positive thermal gradient). Source: Ref 6 Fig. 26 Widmanstätten structure in Ti-6Al-4V alloy cooled at 3.40 °C/s (6.12 °F/s). Source: Ref 13 as published in Ref 11 Fig. 27 Discontinuous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
.... Source: Ref 6 Fig. 33 Schematic illustration showing dendrite tip undercooling Fig. 6 Schematic illustrations of homogeneous (a and b) and heterogeneous (c and d) nucleation. Figures on the left are for a temperature above the melting point. Figures on the right...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., these dispersion-strengthened aluminum alloys exhibit light weight, appreciable ductility, excellent fracture toughness, and resistance to stress-corrosion cracking ( Ref 2 ). These alloys also exhibit coefficients of thermal expansion and galvanic properties comparable to those of conventional structural aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... of a surface and the degree of undercooling that is required for solidification of that surface. The greater the degree of undercooling, the smaller the radius of curvature that is stable. This equation will be considered again when nonplanar solidification is discussed. Nucleation requires a thermal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... pressure as repulsive force and fluid drag as attractive force; shape-preserving paraboloidal growth front; considers smooth particles and thermal conductivities of particle and melt; neglects kinetic undercooling; solute screening is considered separately Stefanescu et al. Repulsive surface energy...