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thermal undercooling

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... model, free growth model, and constitutional undercooling model. The article concludes with a section on thermal analysis techniques for assessing grain-refining characteristics during master alloy processing. casting heterogeneous nucleation homogeneous nucleation nucleation kinetics...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Thermal analysis is a classical method of determining phase diagrams and can be used to analyze the deviation from solidification under equilibrium conditions. This article discusses the use of thermal analysis in industrial processes and in research. It describes the theoretical basis...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... heat-treating defects and how they can be controlled. It also presents an example to demonstrate how thermal and transformation-induced strains cause dimensional changes and residual stresses. continuous cooling transformation diagrams continuous heating transformation diagrams creep...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... thermophysical properties for pure metals and some commercial alloys, and tabulates enthalpy of fusion and the solidus and liquidus temperatures for various alloys of commercial interest. The article also tabulates density, thermal conductivity, surface tension, and viscosity for some commercial alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article also describes the generation of thermal, transformation, and hardening residual stresses. bearing steel case hardening distortion elastic plastic deformation heat treatment linear elastic deformation phase transformation quenching residual stress retained austenite steel...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... article provides a detailed account on thermal properties, conductive properties, magnetic properties, and acoustic properties of cast iron. It also discusses heat treatment, namely, stress relieving, annealing, normalizing, through hardening, and surface hardening. The article presents a discussion on...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... constitutional undercooling and interface energy. Since the thermal and solute gradients in the liquid are negative, constitutional supercooling will always be present to cause the interface to become unstable. The interface energy will initially stabilize the spherical nucleus, but the effect of interface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... be omitted as a separate step, and the simulation course only consists of thermal and mechanical simulation. Mechanical properties of the undercooled states are a necessary prerequisite for this model. Fig. 5 Simulation course of aluminum quenching with flow curves directly measured dependent...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... z ′ Coordinate of specimen m ΔC o Solidus-liquidus interval at T s % Δ T o Solidus-liquidus interval ( T l − T s ) K δ C Solute diffusion length (D/ V ) m δ i Interface diffusion length (D i / V ) m δ K Capillary length (Γ/Δ T o ) m δ T Thermal length (Δ...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... spacings of eutectics and eutectoids as a function of growth rate. Source: Ref 7 as published in Ref 6 The scale of the eutectic microstructure depends on the solidification rate, not directly on the cooling rate. The reason is that the thermal gradient has a negligible effect on the size of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... primary phase to nucleate at the particle surfaces. Thermal analysis showed that the unreinforced alloys exhibited undercooling for primary-phase nucleation, whereas the composites generally did not show any significant undercooling. The grain size of the composites is often smaller than that of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of heat of fusion, solidification causes a large change in the thermal field, unlike solid-state transformation, where the enthalpy change on transformation is generally smaller. Thus, cooling rate prior to solidification is not a good predictor of metallurgical solidification processes. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
.... From a technical viewpoint, the peritectic formation of austenite, γ, from primary ferrite, δ, is the most important peritectic reaction. Thermal analysis indicates that the reaction δ + L → γ proceeds to a great extent during continuous cooling, and δ-ferrite usually disappears completely on cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... often perform better that high-strength irons when these properties are important: Machinability Resistance to thermal shock Damping capacity Ability to be cast in thin sections Successful production of a gray iron casting depends on the fluidity of the molten metal and on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...: 500×. Source: Ref 19 as published in Ref 1 Fig. 30 Same uranium-silicon alloy as Fig. 29 , but the casting has been thermally treated at 900 °C (1650 °F) for several hours. Structure is U 3 Si, within which are contained the remnants of U 3 Si 2 . Original magnification: 500×. Source...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... Nucleation is not included in the general framework of PF theory. Some authors ( Ref 12 , 27 ) propose models with strong thermal noise to introduce random nucleation in a PF simulation. However, it is well known that an interface in a well-resolved PF simulation needs a minimum of four to five numerical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... enables a realistic PF simulation in technical alloys. Nucleation is not included in the general framework of PF theory. Some authors ( Ref 12 , 27 ) propose models with strong thermal noise to introduce random nucleation in a PF simulation. However, it is well known that an interface in a well...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... has a velocity from the pouring operation. In addition, as the metal cools at the mold wall, thermal convection currents are set up at the mold wall, with the cooling metal traveling downward along the mold wall. These currents, combined with solutal convection and the residual liquid motion from...
Book Chapter

By P.S. Grant
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... customers. The refined, high volume fraction of primary silicon yields a low coefficient of thermal expansion, low wear rate, and allows elevated-temperature operation. Silicon-aluminum alloys for thermal management in electronic packaging applications (Sandvik-Osprey, United Kingdom). Spray casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... entropy, a measure of the thermal energy unavailable for useful work. The Gibbs energy is defined as: (Eq 2) G = H − T S Because the enthalpy, H , at constant pressure is the heat content: (Eq 3) H = E + P V When dealing with liquids and solids, the PV term is usually very...