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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article presents a detailed discussion on typical thermal treatment practices for hardening of various aluminum casting alloys. These practices are solution treatment, quenching or cooling, preaging, and artificial aging at an elevated temperature. The aluminum casting alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Nanofluids offer a completely different behavior of wetting kinetics and heat-removal characteristics, which are exploited in industrial heat treatment for quenching. This article provides information on the important thermophysical properties of nanofluids, namely, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of a heat treatment simulation. In addition to thermal simulation, mechanical simulations must also be performed. Between all these fields, several interactions (1 to 6) exist and must be considered during simulation ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The temperature influences the phase transformations (1: time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... size and shape changes. The article also provides information on the carriers of distortion potential that cause measureable size and shape changes. austenitizing carburizing deformation dimensional change distortion heat treatment phase transformation steel thermal stress DIMENSIONAL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... near large primary (MC) carbides. In many superalloys, M 23 C 6 forms at the grain boundaries after a postcasting or postsolution heat treatment thermal cycle such as aging. The matrix carbides in nickel- and iron-nickel-base superalloys do not totally dissolve (without incipient melting of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... materials engineering (ICME) projects worldwide. For thermal processing operations such as heat treatments, dependence of the properties of the final product on the physics of the process must be clearly understood so that analysis or experimentation can be used to design processes to achieve optimal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006266
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Cast nickel-base alloys are used extensively in corrosive-media and high-temperature applications. This article briefly reviews the common types of heat treatments of nickel alloy castings: homogenization, stress relieving, in-process annealing, full annealing, solution annealing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... without producing a recrystallized grain structure. Stress-relieving temperatures for nickel and nickel-base alloys range from 425 to 870 °C (800 to 1600 °F) and are dependent on the alloy composition and amount of work hardening. Stress equalizing : A low-temperature thermal treatment, also called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006270
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... control normally involves a proper combination of both hot work and heat treatment. Alloy properties depend on the amount of equiaxed alpha and the coarseness or fineness of the transformed beta products. Grain refinement, conversion of a colony, or Widmanstätten structure cannot occur by thermal...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the postsolidification thermal processing (both heating and cooling cycles) to achieve a desired set of material properties. Fortunately, the properties of most commercial alloys can be tailored by selecting a suitable heat treatment. In this article, the discussion is limited to heat treatment of...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses various molten-metal treatments, namely fluxing, degassing, and molten-metal filtration. It focuses on various molten-metal handling systems for transporting, holding, or delivering molten metal to the mold/die system. These include launders, tundishes, holding...