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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) compared to the surrounding material in the part. This approach is widely used in maintenance inspection of aircraft for trapped water in honeycomb structures. Fig. 3 In the steady-state configuration, the entire part is heated above ambient temperature, returning to equilibrium by thermal convection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-based ultrasonic inspection systems ( Ref 5 , 6 ). Fig. 1 (a) Handheld and (b) laboratory systems for thermal nondestructive evaluation Although there are numerous configurations for implementing thermography for NDE, in nearly all of them excitation energy is applied to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Favro, et al. ( Ref 3 ) introduced ultrasonic welders as vibration sources and when increasingly sensitive, reliable thermal cameras became available. Interest grew in applying the method to inspect gas turbine blades and disks, and it has been used industrially for blade inspection since about 2006...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... properties. 1% porosity reduces strength by 5% and fatigue life by 50%. Surface notches Static strength reduction of up to 50%. Strength reduction is small for notch sizes that are expected in service. Thermal overexposure Embrittlement and reduction of toughness up to complete loss of structural...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Thermal inspection comprises all methods in which heat-sensing devices or substances are used to detect irregular temperatures. Inspection of workpieces can be used to detect flaws and undesirable distribution of heat during service. Though there are several methods of thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the various tests applied to a thermal barrier coating system and to the zirconia layer to establish thermomechanical, environmental stability, and thermal design properties such as coefficient of thermal expansion, specific heat, and thermal transport properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... core Voids and porosity are detectable by low-kilovoltage (15 to 50 kV) x-ray techniques using a beryllium-window x-ray tube, by thermal neutron radiography, and by ultrasonic C-scan techniques employing small-diameter or focused search units operating at 5 to 10 MHz. If the flaw is the result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... (light-emitting diodes) for confined spaces with limited or no lighting and with thermal cameras for infrared inspection. Captured images and videos are processed to create a two-dimensional panoramic vision or three-dimensional models, which can be assessed on-site or transmitted to the office for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... by AE inspection in the production environment. In welding and shaft straightening, stresses that activate AE are already present in the normal production processes (in welding, they are thermal stresses). In other cases, stress is applied for the express purpose of AE testing. This is akin to...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... sound wave propagates through it alternately heats the substance during compression and cools it during rarefaction. Because heat flows so much more slowly than an ultrasonic wave, thermal losses are incurred, which progressively reduces energy in the propagating wave. A related thermal loss occurs in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Ultrasonic inspection is a family of nondestructive methods in which beams of high-frequency mechanical waves are introduced into materials, using transducers, for the detection and characterization of both surface and subsurface anomalies and flaws in the material. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements, the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006468
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Magnetic-particle inspection is a method of locating surface and subsurface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials. This article discusses the applications and advantages and limitations of magnetic-particle inspection. It describes magnetic fields in terms of magnetized ring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006450
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Eddy-current inspection is based on the principles of electromagnetic induction and is used to identify or differentiate among a wide variety of physical, structural, and metallurgical conditions in electrically conductive ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic metals and metal parts. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... areas such as the inspection girder. Since the mid-1990s, an increasing number of smaller steel bridges and port facilities in coastal areas have been protected with sealed TSA. The most recent large-scale application of thermal spray coatings in Japan is for the urban highway route No. 5 in Fukuoka...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... preparation to prevent the possibility of contamination or surface oxidation. There are few, if any, nondestructive evaluations that can be performed on a final coating, so the assurance of the quality of thermal spray coatings is more dependent on process control than on inspection of the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... metal as thermal gradients develop. Fill mold as quickly as possible Change gating system; e.g., use several smaller gates in place of one large gate Cracks occur during the cooldown of the casting after solidification is complete due to uneven contraction. Apply thermal management techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that obtained from the bottom of the hole in the reference block. Conversely, if a reference block prepared from coarse-grained steel were used when inspecting fine-grained steel, the instrument could be so sensitive that minor discontinuities would appear to be major flaws. Thermal treatment can also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... looking for dimensional anomalies, color variation, cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/IR—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser...