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thermal evaporation

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Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1 Schematic of the basic thermal evaporation process with an electron beam heating source. More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings are harder than any metal and are used in applications that cannot tolerate even microscopic wear losses. This article describes the three most common PVD processes: thermal evaporation, sputtering, and ion plating. It also discusses ion...
Image
Published: 01 January 1986
Fig. 2 Thermal control plate. Approximately 0.1 mL of liquid is being evaporated on a glass plate. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... are observed (compared to thermal evaporation particle energies of ≈0.1 eV). Charged particle kinetic energies of as much as 10 to 100 times the neutral particle energies are also observed. The fraction of ionized material in the plasma is difficult to measure. Estimates vary between 1 and 10% ( Ref 21...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... electron yield; such coatings are prepared by thermal evaporation or sputter coating. Carbon coatings prepared by evaporation are used for x-ray analysis because the surface film is nearly transparent to x-rays. Thermal Evaporation Evaporated thin films are prepared in a bell jar under high-vacuum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of material to form a coating by physical means alone, essentially vaporization. Practically all metals can be evaporated, making evaporation a universal process. The source material may be heated by bombardment with an electron beam or heated by thermal conduction. Like sputtering, it is a line-of-sight...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Abstract Coatings and other surface modifications are used for a variety of functional, economic, and aesthetic purposes. Two major applications of thermal spray coatings are for wear resistance and corrosion resistance. This article discusses thermal (surface hardening) and thermochemical...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... to deposit metal films on substrates by exposing them to a metal vapor under vacuum. Physical vapor deposition processes ( Fig. 7 ) include vacuum evaporation, where thermally vaporized material reaches the substrate without collision in the gas phase; sputter deposition, where physically removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... costly materials. It describes solidification surface treatments such as hot dip coatings, weld overlays, and thermal spray coatings. The article discusses deposition surface treatments such as electrochemical plating, chemical vapor deposition, and physical vapor deposition processes. It explains...
Image
Published: 01 December 2004
Fig. 14 Light micrograph of magnesium-doped alumina after thermal etching at 1500 °C (2730 °F) in air for 40 min. Equiaxed grains with black gaps along the grain boundaries can be seen. The gaps are pores and voids formed by an evaporated spinel phase (MgAl 2 O 4 ). More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... transit from source to part and the energy with which ions impinge on that part. This level of control can be contrasted to competing vacuum coating technologies, such as electron-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering, where the atoms of coating material travel from the source to the part to be coated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... images are obtained when the evaporation field of the sample material, F E , is significantly above the ionization field of the image gas, F I , and the stress required to produce mechanical failure, F Y , exceeds each of these. Because field evaporation is thermally assisted, working at the lowest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... Atmospheric-plasma-sprayed Mn-Co-Fe spinel layer used as a chromium evaporation barrier in solid oxide fuel cell applications Another interesting thermal spray application is the use of insulating coatings for certain stack designs. In these systems, cells are metal brazed into a metallic frame...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006673
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) is a thermal analysis technique that measures the amount and rate of change in the weight of a material as a function of temperature or time in a controlled atmosphere. This article provides a detailed account of the concepts of TGA, covering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... stresses, transformation stresses, and thermal stresses in oxide scales. It discusses the ways in which stresses can be relieved. The article provides information on catastrophic oxidation, internal oxidation, sulfidation, alloy oxidation, selective oxidation, and concurrent oxidation. It illustrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... precursors, namely, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and evaporative or solvent carriers. It provides a description of the advantages and limitations of various methods involved in chemical vapor infiltration. The article concludes with a discussion on matrix contribution to composite properties. carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... show accelerated corrosion and localized metal loss. Chromia scale evaporation and subsequent condensation/interaction with cathode electrodes have also been observed. At 1000 °C (1830 °F), significant interaction of the anode electrode with silica vapor (originating from ceramic alumina-base thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of the depositing adatoms, growth morphology of the film, gas entrapment, reaction with deposition ambient (including reactive deposition processes), and changes in the film properties during deposition Postdeposition processing and reactions —e.g., reaction of film surface with the ambient, thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...)-filled epoxy resin (a polymer nanocomposite), which may be under consideration for use due to its excellent mechanical or thermally conductive properties or its reduced weight compared to conventionally filled epoxies. To ensure that the epoxy is compatible with the system, it is necessary to evaluate...