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thermal energy method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... heat conduction to electromagnetic radiation). In practice, optimizing and matching these conversions is essential to TNDE performance. Thermal nondestructive evaluation methods differ in the manner in which excitation energy interacts with the sample and how the sample returns to equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; T, tetragonal phase; L, liquid; t, nontransformable tetragonal. Source: Ref 4 In thermally sprayed yttria-stabilized coatings, the feedstock is powder, which may be fabricated by a variety of methods ( Ref 7 ). Partially stabilized zirconia, with about 6.5 to 9 wt% Y, mostly avoids the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Thermal inspection comprises all methods in which heat-sensing devices or substances are used to detect irregular temperatures. Inspection of workpieces can be used to detect flaws and undesirable distribution of heat during service. Though there are several methods of thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article provides information on the various stages of quenching, sources of distortion, and factors that affect the creation of thermal gradients. It reviews the various determinations of heat-transfer coefficients by the thermal conductivity and diffusivity method, analytical and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... involving severe wear. This article presents a variety of methods and media used for boriding of ferrous materials, and explains their advantages, limitations, and applications. These methods include pack cementation boriding, gas boriding, plasma boriding, electroless salt bath boriding, electrolytic salt...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006661
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... processes for a TDS experiment. The factors that must be considered when performing TPD experiments and several methods of analyzing TPD data are covered. A few studies where TPD was used to elucidate surface reactions that impact the tribological performances of materials are also discussed. thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface preparation methods and finishing treatments of coated parts. The article also explains the tests to evaluate the coating quality and the effects of coating structures and mechanical properties on coated parts. It concludes with a discussion on the uses of thermal spray coatings. coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... direction) commonly observed in ground ceramic components ( Ref 28 ). Control of these thermal stresses is critical to the development of better grinding methods for ceramics. In electronic ceramic materials, the high temperatures and temperature gradients cause the near-surface electromagnetic properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.9781627081719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... oxidative effects (in an air environment) or char formation (in an inert environment). General characterizations that illustrate the results normally obtained using DSC, TMA, and TGA methods to screen the thermal properties of polymers are presented below. General information on thermal analysis and its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... placed within a furnacelike enclosure). Salt baths are very efficient methods of heat treating; approximately 93 to 97% of the electric power consumed with a covered salt bath operation goes directly into heating of the parts. In atmosphere furnaces, 60% of the energy goes for heating, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... with steel. Results of the process include relief of residual stresses ( Ref 6 ); reduced retained austenite (in hardened steel); the precipitation of fine carbides in ferrous metals ( Ref 7 , 8 ); and increased wear resistance, fatigue life, hardness, dimensional stability, thermal and electrical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... heating time can result in high forming load, poor material flow, and fracture. It is therefore important to understand the temperature evolution within the workpiece during the heating process. The most frequently used heating methods are induction heating and furnace heating. In addition to thermal...