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thermal energy conservation

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005234
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be readily applied to modeling casting processes. The article also summarizes the key features of the conservation equations in these tools. casting modeling transport phenomena conservation equations electromagnetics explicit numerical solution thermal energy conservation solute conservation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... more accurate and more efficient. Energy Equation and Heat Transfer The conservation of energy is the fundamental principle that underlies all thermal analysis, including that of welds. In the simplest terms, it states that while energy can be added or extracted, no energy can be created...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... efficient. Energy Equation and Heat Transfer The conservation of energy is the fundamental principle that underlies all thermal analysis, including that of welds. In the simplest terms, it states that while energy can be added or extracted, no energy can be created or destroyed in the domain being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... by full numerical solutions of the transport equations, with some attention paid to experimental validation. Conservation Equations for Transport Phenomena Thermal Energy Transport The primary driving force for solidification is the transfer of heat from an alloy. The temperature difference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... behavior throughout the remainder of the specimen, whereas in the real materials, there is viscoelastic deformation of some form or other occurring in the bulk of the specimen. The presence of inelasticity in the entire specimen, as well as at the crack tip, results in additional energy being required...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... process. Its extension for the prediction of the temperature field in the ESR process involving coupled thermal interactions between the molten slag and the ingot is then described. VAR Process The energy conservation equation is ed using the enthalpy-porosity approach ( Ref 80 ) to enable...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... that total energy, in all its forms, must be conserved These three principles lead to the basic three equations of motion: the mass, or continuity, equation; the momentum equation; and the total energy equation. Each of the articles that follow in this Section develops these fundamental balance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of a process model. Ingredients of a Process Model A process model is constructed and verified from six main ingredients ( Ref 1 ): Model or system boundary that identifies the system being studied Physical laws that ensure conservation of mass, momentum, and energy Constitutive laws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... welding. The article presents the mathematical equations of mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation. It reviews the applications of heat transfer and fluid flow models for different welding processes. Finally, the article discusses the approaches to improve reliability of, and reduce uncertainty...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... equations: continuity, momentum, energy, and solute conservation. The mushy zone is treated as a porous medium. More details pertaining to the transport equations, as well as modifications for numerical implementation, can be found in Ref 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 . Continuity Equation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... analysis consists of the conservation of energy: (Eq 1) ρ C p ∂ T ∂ t = − ∇ ∙ ( − k ∇ T ) + H V where ρ is the material density, C p is the specific heat, T is the temperature, and H V is the heat source. The heat source is typically defined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., gaseous reactants are introduced in the reaction chamber, where thermal energy initiates gas phase and surface reactions. If thermodynamic conditions are favorable (see section “Physical Vapor Deposition and Related Processes” in this article), chemical reactions lead to the formation of a stable solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... + v ) ; λ = v E ( 1 + v ) ( 1 − 2 v ) ; γ = E 1 − 2 v where α is the linear thermal expansion coefficient for isotropic materials and δ ij is the Dirac symbol. The first law of thermodynamics expresses the conservation of internal energy of a system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is triggered to start acquiring thermal images of the sample surface for background subtraction purposes. Usually ten frames suffice. After a few frames have been acquired with the sample at room temperature, the capacitor bank is discharged and the radiant energy produced by the lamps is deposited over...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... stresses (see the section “Thermal Stresses in a Tube” ) The thermal stresses are often superimposed with one of the former stress systems. Von Mises Criterion The most commonly used effective stress concept is the one presented in 1913 by von Mises, based on a concept of maximum energy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... in the sow or ingot, thus making it safer to charge. The stored thermal energy (Btus) provides further energy savings in maintaining the melt. Melt loss and themal efficiency of electric and gas reverberatory furnaces Table 1 Melt loss and themal efficiency of electric and gas reverberatory furnaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009084
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... with time. The depth of the oxidative degradation (thermo-oxidation) is a function of the exposure temperature, the length of time of thermal exposure, and the chemistry and constituents of the matrix and composite material. Figure 1(a) shows a micrograph of an as-processed epoxy woven glass fabric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... force approach and explicit nucleation algorithm. Calculation of activation energy and critical nucleus configuration is discussed. The article presents the deterministic phase-field kinetic equations for modeling growth and coarsening of microstructure. It also describes the material-specific model...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of welding involve solving for the mass conservation, momentum balance, and energy balance simultaneously. The analysis is typically performed in a Eulerian reference frame centered on the welding torch, with material flowing through the control volume ( Fig. 3 ). The analysis is further simplified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... for equations of mass and momentum conservation: Prescribed pressure at injection point, free surface at melt front, and no slip condition at cavity wall Boundary conditions for energy equation: Injection temperature at injection point, free surface at melt front, and mold-wall temperature condition...