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thermal convection

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Published: 31 August 2017
Fig. 15 The reactive wall coating and the thermal convection currents combine to simulate magnesium fading in the bottom of the sampling device. Source: Ref 22 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 7 Corrosion of type 316 stainless steel exposed to thermally convective lithium for 7488 h at the maximum loop temperature of 600 °C (1110 °F). (a) Light micrograph of polished and etched cross section. (b) SEM showing the top view of the porous surface. Source: Ref 2 More
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Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 22 Convection and thermal radiation heat losses versus temperature in typical induction heating applications. Source: Ref 32 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... material. This article describes a test method performed using thermal convection loop for corrosion studies of molten salts. It discusses the purification of salts that are used in the Oak Ridge molten salt reactor experiment. The article also reviews the corrosion characteristics of nitrates/nitrites...
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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 3 In the steady-state configuration, the entire part is heated above ambient temperature, returning to equilibrium by thermal convection (a). An internal inclusion with anomalous thermal mass cools at a different rate than the surrounding material, causing a nonuniform temperature More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 4 Polished cross section of type 316 stainless steel exposed to thermally convective Pb-17at.%Li at 500 °C (930 °F) for 2472 h. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 5 Polished cross section of Fe-12Cr-1MoVW steel exposed to thermally convective Pb-17at.%Li at 500 °C (930 °F) for 2000 h. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 17 Light micrograph of the polished cross section of a type 316 stainless steel exposed to thermally convective Pb-17at.% Li at 500 °C (930 °F) for 2472 h. Source: Ref 10 More
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Published: 01 January 2003
Fig. 8 SEM micrographs of chromium mass-transfer deposits found at the 460 °C (860 °F) position in the cold leg of a lithium/type 316 stainless steel thermal convection loop after 1700 h. Mass-transfer deposits are often a more serious result of corrosion than wall thinning. (a) Cross section More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to equilibrium with its surroundings at a later time through convection, which usually is slower and weaker than the transient thermal diffusion process. For example, heat generated at the surface of a sample by a brief pulse from a flash lamp flows into the cooler interior by the process of thermal diffusion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... be used for construction. The effects of liquid lithium on stainless steel, nickel, and niobium containment materials are shown in Fig. 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 . Fig. 7 Corrosion of type 316 stainless steel exposed to thermally convective lithium for 7488 h...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... such as insulated pipes, cooling fins, radiation shields, and composite structures and configurations. composite structures extended surfaces forced convection free convection heat conduction heat-transfer equations mixed convection thermal radiation HEAT TRANSFER is energy in transit as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of heat or the protection of a construction most effectively against heat losses or gains. Three recognized modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and thermal radiation. They differ entirely in physical mechanism and governing laws. In conduction, heat flows from a high-temperature region...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the basic turbulent flow, and the thermal, mass-transfer, and hydrodynamic phenomena for use in modeling physical processes during induction melting. It provides a discussion on transport phenomena equations that includes the approximation of convective terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... diminished load-bearing capacity, and the section thickness of sound material remaining will be less than what would be calculated based on converting measured mass losses to a surface recession distance. Fig. 4 Polished cross section of type 316 stainless steel exposed to thermally convective Pb-17at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Induction heating is a combination of several interrelated physical phenomena, including heat transfer, electromagnetics, and metallurgy. This article presents a brief review of different heat transfer modes, namely, heat conduction, thermal radiation, and convection. It focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005878
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and additionally taking into account the conditions of Eq 2 and 3 , the workpiece is heated uniformly in the whole volume. This case occurs in small workpieces with large convection heat coefficients—for instance good thermal conductors such as copper, aluminum, silver, or other metals—and Eq 5 simplifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... is assumed to be approximately equal to the furnace temperature. The average convection heat-transfer coefficient, h , is generally calculated by ( Ref 1 ): (Eq 13) h − k g L ∗ ⋅ N u L ∗ where k g is the thermal conductivity of the gas (in W/m·K), L...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... during steel hardening and tempering. furnaces hardening holding time tempering thermal conductivity HEATING TIME and holding time refer, respectively, to the time required to bring a part to temperature and the time a part is held at the required heat-treatment temperature. Heating times...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are currently certified for use in surface-mount technology (SMT) applications: Type A: vapor phase Type B: area conduction (that is, linear conduction) Type C: hot bar Type D: convection and convection/infrared (IR) Type E: laser Of these five methods, three are considered to be mass...