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thermal convection

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the molten salt with the container material. This article describes a test method performed using thermal convection loop for corrosion studies of molten salts. It discusses the purification of salts that are used in the Oak Ridge molten salt reactor experiment. The article also reviews the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005898
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the basic turbulent flow, and the thermal, mass-transfer, and hydrodynamic phenomena for use in modeling physical processes during induction melting. It provides a discussion on transport phenomena equations that includes the approximation of convective terms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... exposed to thermally convective lithium for 7488 h at the maximum loop temperature of 600 °C (1110 °F). (a) Light micrograph of polished and etched cross section. (b) SEM showing the top view of the porous surface. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 8 SEM micrographs of chromium mass-transfer deposits found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Abstract Induction heating is a combination of several interrelated physical phenomena, including heat transfer, electromagnetics, and metallurgy. This article presents a brief review of different heat transfer modes, namely, heat conduction, thermal radiation, and convection. It focuses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... returns to equilibrium with its surroundings at a later time through convection, which usually is slower and weaker than the transient thermal diffusion process. For example, heat generated at the surface of a sample by a brief pulse from a flash lamp flows into the cooler interior by the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Mater. , Vol 114 , 1983 , p 143 – 149 10.1016/0022-3115(83)90251-9 • Bell G.E. , Abdou M.A. , and Tortorelli P.F. , Experimental and Analytical Investigations of Mass Transport Processes of 12Cr- 1MoVW Steel in Thermally Convected Lithium Systems , Fusion Eng. Des. , Vol 8...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... about the test sample ( Fig. 2 ). In steady-state/whole-body excitation, the temperature of the entire part is raised above (or lowered below) the ambient temperature, and the part returns to equilibrium with its surroundings through the process of thermal convection. In transient excitation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... segregation of the chemical species that can be characterized by x-ray radiography at the macroscopic sample scale for both thermal convection and solutal convection. Thermal convection effects are shown in Fig. 3 . The horizontal bands in Fig. 3(a) show how the indium concentration stratifies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...” in this Volume. The equation and boundary conditions for temperature field determination ( Eq 9 ) are coupled with the equation for the magnetic vector potential ( Eq 8 ), but they also must be coupled with the momentum equation ( Eq 10 ) because the thermal convection is taken into account (see Fig. 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., and ease of learning. Because most of the costs of analysis are in preparing data and training, the latter two issues are nearly as important as functionality. Given a body at temperature T immersed in a fluid at temperature T amb , convection assumes that a thermal boundary layer exists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... and the welded structure. Computational weld mechanics described in algorithmic notation comprises the following steps: Define the geometry, material properties, heat inputs, boundary conditions such as thermal convection, and mechanical support Compute the transient temperature field Compute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... forth operate in increasingly demanding conditions. Higher loads and speeds are applied and because of ecological reasons there is pressure to reduce the amounts of lubricant. Controlling friction and wear becomes increasingly challenging. In such conditions, thermal aspects also gain importance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., the liquid has a velocity from the pouring operation. In addition, as the metal cools at the mold wall, thermal convection currents are set up at the mold wall, with the cooling metal traveling downward along the mold wall. These currents, combined with solutal convection and the residual liquid motion from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... distribution) when heating different materials. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 39 InductoForge modular billet heater. Courtesy of Inductoheat, Inc. Fig. 33 Coil electrical efficiency vs. frequency when heating hollow and solid cylinders. Source: Ref 67 Fig. 22 Convection and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
..., and k is the thermal conductivity of the part. This number determines whether or not the temperature inside a body varies significantly in space. The assumption means that the conduction inside the part is much faster than the convection outside. Because of the good thermal conductivity of most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005878
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... This case occurs in small workpieces with large convection heat coefficients—for instance good thermal conductors such as copper, aluminum, silver, or other metals—and Eq 5 simplifies in the form: (Eq 8) ∂ T ∂ t = d T d t = p V ( t ) ρ c For typical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... are currently certified for use in surface-mount technology (SMT) applications: Type A: vapor phase Type B: area conduction (that is, linear conduction) Type C: hot bar Type D: convection and convection/infrared (IR) Type E: laser Of these five methods, three are considered to be mass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... such as insulated pipes, cooling fins, radiation shields, and composite structures and configurations. composite structures extended surfaces forced convection free convection heat conduction heat-transfer equations mixed convection thermal radiation HEAT TRANSFER is energy in transit as a result...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of heat or the protection of a construction most effectively against heat losses or gains. Three recognized modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and thermal radiation. They differ entirely in physical mechanism and governing laws. In conduction, heat flows from a high-temperature region...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... during steel hardening and tempering. furnaces hardening holding time tempering thermal conductivity HEATING TIME and holding time refer, respectively, to the time required to bring a part to temperature and the time a part is held at the required heat-treatment temperature. Heating times...