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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the vibrothermography process: vibration of the specimen by a transducer; conversion of vibrational energy into heat by a crack, delamination, and other contacting surfaces; conduction of the heat to an external surface; and infrared detection of the heat with a thermal camera. vibrothermography delaminations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... method. Optical methods monitor light reflected or emitted in the visible wavelength range, 380 to 700 nm. Thermal methods monitor light emitted at infrared wavelengths, greater than 700 nm. Optical Monitoring Optical monitoring refers to observation of the build area by using a sensor (camera...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006954
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... of a melt pool dynamically fluctuates during fabrication, largely dependent on the interactions of scan strategy, part geometry, or varying processing parameters. Fig. 1 (a) Melt-pool-scale thermal image from a high-speed, staring-configuration near-infrared camera (20 μm/pixel, 30,000 frames/s). (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... techniques produce relative “hot spots” or large thermal contrasts on the specimen surface when there is a defect within the material. With the aid of the IR camera and associated equipment, the inspector makes a permanent record of these hot spots. Figure 1 shows a laboratory setup of a pulse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to generate a thermal response at the sample surface that is correlated to the thermophysical properties of the material or to a subsurface flaw or feature. The surface temperature response is detected by the IR camera, often aided by image and/or signal processing integrated into the camera or on a computer...
Image
Published: 30 June 2023
Fig. 1 (a) Melt-pool-scale thermal image from a high-speed, staring-configuration near-infrared camera (20 μm/pixel, 30,000 frames/s). (b) Part-scale thermal image measured via a high-speed coaxially mounted camera, with each image registered to part coordinates and superimposed (8 μm/pixel More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 17 Glass plate broken in thermal shock. The fracture origin is at the lower edge of the plate. Note how the crack is normal to this edge. The “meandering” shape of the crack is typical of thermal-shock failure of plates. Camera image; picture width ∼20 mm More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., the degree of deviation from −0.5 straight-line (semiinfinite) behavior due to the presence of the substrate will depend on the degree to which the thermal properties of the layers differ. Signal Processing Basic NDE can be performed by directly viewing the output of the IR camera on a monitor...
Image
Published: 09 June 2014
Fig. 66 The use of infrared cameras is an essential and well-accepted method for the preventive inspection of electrical devices and circuits, determining poor connections and various hot spots on enclosures, cabinets, bus works, or components. (a) Thermal image of an area of noticeably higher More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... –450 to 2370 29.6 Source: Ref 8 Noncontact-Type Temperature Sensors Noncontact-type temperature sensors make use of thermal radiation to measure the contact temperature. Boltzmann’s law gives the relation between temperature and radiation. In recent years infrared (IR) cameras have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... photons in the infrared wavelength into a measurable voltage. Infrared detectors can be grouped into two broad categories: quantum detectors and thermal/nonquantum detectors. Quantum Detectors The first truly commercial infrared camera for TSA was a system named stress pattern analysis by thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of drones, or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which has expanded the limits of VI in areas unimagined some years ago. The UAVs can be equipped with lighting sources (light-emitting diodes) for confined spaces with limited or no lighting and with thermal cameras for infrared inspection. Captured images...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
...-sensitive polymer AM processes, such as material extrusion and PBF. There are two major types of thermal sensors used in AM monitoring: thermocouples and infrared cameras. Notably, the pyrometer has also been applied in polymer AM ( Ref 76 ). However, because its ideal temperature measurement interval...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006851
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... digital camera. It covers basic photographic principles and manipulation of settings that assist in producing high-quality images. The need for accurate photographic documentation in failure analysis is also presented. failure analysis photographic documentation photography professional digital...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... devices, including pinhole/Laue cameras, Debye-Scherrer/Gandolfi cameras, Guinier cameras, glancing angle cameras, conventional diffractometers, thin film diffractometers, Guinier diffractometers, and micro diffractometers. The article then describes several quantitative measurement methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... and installing and maintaining them. The article discusses typical applications of induction heating, and describes how the IR thermometer controls the temperature. While the majority of the article discusses spot thermometers, thermal imagers, which are fast and are used for both research and control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001482
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Abstract Fusion welding processes involve four phase changes, namely, solid-solid state, solid-liquid, liquid-vapor, and vapor-plasma. Each has its own thermal, momentum, and stress history. This article discusses some important techniques to validate temperature, momentum, stress, and residual...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... paper, which is available in white or in colors and in rolls of various widths, can be used to provide an uncluttered background. A workable setup for photographing specimens and small parts is with a view camera mounted vertically on an enlarger (or equivalent) stand. The longest-focal-length lens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-ray diffraction analyses have historically been conducted using two types of equipment: either with cameras or with x-ray diffractometers, as described in other sections of this article. A pinhole camera ( Fig. 1 , 2 ) with photographic film is the oldest method of detecting x-rays. It was first used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... for electron extraction from the source are thermal heating for electron emission and applying electrical fields. The former is the thermionic gun, and the latter is the FEG. More details on these electron sources are provided later. It is worth mentioning some of the important characteristics of electron...