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thallium binary system

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... system, a table of crystallographic data is provided that includes the composition, Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype for each phase. binary phase diagrams crystallographic data phase data thallium binary system THIS ARTICLE includes systems where thallium is the first-named element...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... system, a table of crystallographic data is provided that includes the composition, Pearson symbol, space group, and prototype for each phase. binary phase diagrams crystallographic data phase data ytterbium binary system THIS ARTICLE includes systems where ytterbium is the first-named...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... Abstract This article is a compilation of binary alloy phase diagrams for which zinc (Zn) is the first named element in the binary pair. The diagrams are presented with element compositions in weight percent. The atomic percent compositions are given in a secondary scale. For each binary system...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... exist as a solid, liquid, and/or gas, depending on the specific combination of temperature and pressure. It describes the accomplishment of conversion between weight percentage and atomic percentage in a binary system by the use of formulas. The article analyzes the effects of alloying on melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract Computed tomography (CT) is an imaging technique that generates a three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric image of a test piece. This article illustrates the basic principles of CT and provides information on the types, applications, and capabilities of CT systems. A comparison of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... can be used to deposit binary or ternary alloy coatings. The chemistries of ternary alloy plating can be very complex and involve several chelation and secondary reactions. The typical ternary system operates by having the primary metal reaction at the surface produce an electropotential greater than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... The regular-solution model has been used to calculate the phase diagrams in binary, ternary, and quaternary semiconductor systems. Phase diagrams of many multicomponent systems are available in the literature ( Ref 50 , 51 , 52 ). Thermodynamic analyses of solid composition against vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... stoichiometric compositions at lower temperatures and are stable at very low temperatures ( Fig. 11 ). Only Nb 3 Sn receives much attention because of its very good superconducting properties. The entire Nb-Sn binary diagram is shown in Fig. 12 . There has been a lot of work on this system because of its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... standard Gibbs energy change of formation of oxides and the corresponding dissociation pressures of the oxides as a function of temperature. It demonstrates the Kellogg diagram which shows stability range in more complicated multioxidant systems. The article explains the determination of partial pressures...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... comprise x-ray tubes, the analyzing system, and detectors. The fundamentals of EDS operation are described. The article also provides useful information on preparation of various samples, explaining the qualitative and quantitative analyses of EDS. It reviews the applications of the x-ray spectrometry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006275
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... practiced for bearing alloys, pewterware, and organ pipe alloys. The article reviews the principles underlying these applications. aging binary system castings dispersion hardening heat treatment lead lead alloys pewter solid-solution hardening solution treating ternary system tin alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... additive, indium tends to harden and strengthen tin- and lead-based solders; its most marked effect is on lead-base solders. Another feature of indium is the improved thermal fatigue resistance obtained in the binary lead-indium system and the ternary lead-silver-indium system as compared to that of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... embrittlement couples show that they form binary systems with little or no solid solubility. Also, they form immiscible liquids in the liquid state, and they usually do not form intermetallic compounds. This is an empirical observation, valid for many embrittlement couples, although exceptions have been...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... shown in Fig. 3 , and the Ta L-shell and M-shell families, as shown in Fig. 4 . With the low-photon-energy performance of EDS, L-shell x-rays can be readily detected for titanium, as shown in Fig. 11 , and some EDS systems can detect the Ca L-family.  EDS artifacts include sum (coincidence) peaks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... technique is still widely used on printed wiring boards. Brazing has also evolved significantly. The introduction of torch brazing, furnace brazing, and vacuum brazing has expanded the application of brazing to different material systems such as aluminum, stainless steel, superalloys, titanium, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... is used as a reagent for producing chemicals, in metal refining processes, as a component for making zinc-rich paints, and as an additive for plastics. Zinc is alloyed for different applications. The binary zinc alloy systems of commercial interest are: 95Zn-5Al and 55Al-45Zn, major coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Duty cycle, continuous or intermittent operation or exposure Potential for upset conditions, for example, temperature and concentration excursions Unusual conditions, such as high solution velocity or vacuum Materials present in the system and the potential for galvanic corrosion Although...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a fuel cell. In operation the fuel is oxidized and this chemical reaction provides the energy that is converted to electricity ( Ref 4 ). A fuel cell power plant has three basic components: the fuel system, which manages the processing and flow of fuel to the fuel cell; the fuel cell, which converts...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and counted. As these energies are measured, a histogram of the numbers of photons counted corresponding to each energy is plotted. The detector in an EDS system is a lithium-doped silicon semiconductor. X-ray photons enter the semiconductor detector crystal, where numerous electron-hole pairs are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7