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tension specimen

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... However, even though the tension test is simple in nature, it may provide misleading information if not properly designed. Specifically, parameters such as the specimen geometry, tension machine characteristics, and strain rate and temperature control all influence the results of the tension test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and fracture. Next, the mechanisms of void nucleation and void coalescence are briefly described. Macroscale and microscale appearances of ductile and brittle fracture are then discussed for various specimen geometries (smooth cylindrical and prismatic) and loading conditions (e.g., tension...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article reviews the various types of mechanical testing methods, including hardness testing; tension testing; compression testing; dynamic fracture testing; fracture toughness testing; fatigue life testing; fatigue crack growth testing; and creep, stress-rupture, and stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... indexes of ductility. The extent of deformation possible in a tension test, however, is limited by the formation of a necked region in the tension specimen. This introduces a triaxial tensile stress state and leads to fracture. For most metals, the uniform strain that precedes necking rarely exceeds a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ) 2 YS, where P max is the maximum load that the specimen is able to sustain, B is the specimen thickness, W is the specimen width, a is the crack length, and YS is the yield strength in tension. For the data shown in Fig. 13 , P max was replaced by the crack initiation load. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Circumferential tension and axial compression stresses at the equator of an upset cylinder The effects of the bulged surface in cylindrical compression tests can be enhanced by the use of shaped compression specimens. These specimens contain flanged or tapered sections at midheight, which increase the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... tension, softening, parallel-plate viscosity, and flexure. The vertical TMA is well suited for plastics and very small specimens. Specimens with very small cross sections, such as fibers and films, cannot support compression and therefore cannot easily be measured in a dilatometer. The CTE of fibers and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000629
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... nozzles, and tension, flexural, compressive, and shear loadings. carbon-epoxy composites composite prepreg fractograph resin-matrix composites Fig. 1294 Fracture surface of a Fiberite 934 epoxy resin specimen that failed in tension. The specimen was tested at 25 °C (77 °F) in the dry...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000624
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... more equiaxed than those in Fig. 1220 . See also Fig. 1222 . SEM, 500× Fig. 1222 Fracture surface in a specimen of the same Fe-Cr-Ta alloy, and with the same heat treatment, as in Fig. 1219 , 1220 , and 1221 , but which was broken in tension at 600 °C (1112 °F). At this test temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article summarizes the types of hot working simulation tests such as hot tension, compression, and torsion testing used in the assessment of workability. It illustrates the use of hot torsion testing for the optimization of hot working processes. The article concludes with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... 23) σ 0 = ( K E n ) 1 / ( 1 − n ) The rate at which strain is applied to the tension or compression specimen has an important influence on the stress-strain curve. Strain rate is defined as ε ˙ = d ε/ dt and is expressed in units of s −1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006761
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Unidirectional tension Ultimate tensile strength Yield strength Proportional limit (curve) Ductility: percent reduction in area and percent elongation May be insufficient material for standard test specimen Anisotropic materials require multiple samples Properties can be specimen-size dependent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005421
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... List of symbols a , size of major axis of an elliptical cavity A o , area of the nominally uniform slice of the specimen A lb , load-bearing area A m , macroscopic area of a tension specimen b , size of minor axis of an elliptical cavity γ, surface energy of the cavity γ p , surface energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... cracks. 3.5× (D. Roche and H.H. Honegger, California Polytechnic State University) Fig. 376 Surface of a tension-overload fracture in a specimen of AISI 4315 steel that was quenched from 980 °C (1800 °F) and tempered at 315 °C (600 °F). Note the large, equiaxed dimples. TEM p-c replica, 3600...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000612
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... classic example of cup-and-cone tension-overload fracture in an unnotched specimen of 13-8 PH stainless steel with tensile strength of 1634 MPa (237 ksi) and 47% reduction of area. There are circumferential secondary cracks at the base of the shear lip. See also Fig. 721 . 9× Fig. 721 SEM view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Higher-magnification view of the area in the rectangle in Fig. 775 , showing one of the large voids and clearly revealing dimples of various sizes both at the bottom and along the side walls of the void. SEM, 4000× Fig. 777 Tension-overload fracture in notched specimen of AISI H11 tool steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... pressed together to form a panel, from which fatigue specimens were machined. The composite failed after 200 cycles at 760 °C (1400 °F). Cup-and-cone fiber fractures indicate a ductile failure mode. SEM, 100× and 250× (D.W. Petrasek, NASA Lewis Research Center) Fig. 1271 Surface of a tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... transition from the fatigue-precrack region (below arrows) to the tension-overload plane-strain fracture region (above arrows). Specimen was aged 24 h at 120 °C (250 °F); tensile strength was 593 MPa (86 ksi), and uniform elongation was 13%. Note the appreciable number of vertical delaminations (as at A's...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract The principal types of elevated-temperature mechanical failure are creep and stress rupture, stress relaxation, low- and high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, tension overload, and combinations of these, as modified by environment. This article briefly reviews the applied aspects of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Variable or quantity Symbol or relation Basic definitions  Normal plastic anisotropy ( R ) R = d ε w / d ε t ≈ ε w /ε t where ε w , ε t denote the true width and thickness strains during uniform, uniaxial tension of a sheet specimen  Average normal plastic anisotropy ( R ) R...