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tensile instability

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004014
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., it may fail due to tensile instability if it is flow formed in the forward direction ( Ref 1 ). Reverse flow forming: The axial motion of the roller assembly and the material flow are in opposite directions ( Fig. 8b ). The cross section behind the rollers is stress free, but if the part has long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002364
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... is focused on failure of metals caused by repeated or cyclic loading. Cyclic stress-strain behavior of metals is described to illustrate the inadequacy of the monotonic or tensile stress-strain curve in accounting for material instabilities caused by cyclic deformations. The concept of the strain-life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... exceeds the rate of increase of work hardening, leading to instability and a rapidly falling tensile load as the neck progresses toward fracture. In compression testing, a similar phenomenon occurs when work softening is prevalent ( Ref 12 ). That is, during compression, the cross-sectional area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... in the engineering stress-strain curve is known as the ultimate tensile strength , s u . The strain at maximum load, up to which point the cross-sectional area decreases uniformly along the gage length as the specimen elongates, is known as the uniform elongation , e u . The necking instability that occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... The formation of a necked region or mild notch introduces triaxial stresses that make it difficult to determine accurately the longitudinal tensile stress from the onset of necking until fracture occurs. This concept is discussed in greater detail in the section of this article on instability in tension...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., as discussed in the article “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture” in this Volume. In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region, which is normal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006490
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... in greater fluidity of the molten pool. This article schematically illustrates the keyhole instability in LBW and describes the process details of LSW. Representative macrographs of butt, lap, and fillet welds produced using the LBW and LSW processes are presented. The article discusses the laser welding...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... article in this Volume, “Fracture Appearance and Mechanisms of Deformation and Fracture.” In a smooth cylindrical tensile specimen, failure most commonly initiates by inclusion-matrix interface debonding near the centerline. This results in a central fibrous region that is normal to the applied load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... = ( R p0.2 + R m )/2 (yield strength and tensile strength dependent method). In another method, the toughness values of the material, expressed by the Charpy energy impact toughness ( C v ) in the upper shelf, are also considered (toughness-dependent approach). In Fig. 2 , the influence...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., copper, and carbon. Additions of silicon, tungsten, and molybdenum produce effects similar to those caused by additions of manganese and chromium; the composition of minimum expansivity shifts toward higher contents of nickel. Addition of carbon is said to produce instability in Invar, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... into three categories: insufficient strength, local instability, and general instability. Insufficient Strength Insufficient strength failure modes are described subsequently. See Fig. 2 for pictorial representations of these modes. Fig. 2 Failures caused by insufficient strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004002
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... instabilities in tests conducted at high temperatures. Modeling of Forging Behavior As reviewed previously, a significant concern in forging composites is the presence of extensive cracking that can occur on the surface of the forged composite due to secondary tensile stresses. The presence of surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Engineering strain, e 0.01 0.105 0.22 0.65 1.72 53.6 Engineering Stress-Strain Curve In the conventional engineering tensile test, a test specimen is gripped at opposite ends within the load frame of a testing machine and the force and extension are recorded until the specimen fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... dependent on the size and amount of particles or precipitates dispersed throughout the material. Increasing volume fraction of particles drastically reduces tensile ductility ( Ref 2 ) by providing sources for void initiation, which then grow and coalesce into cracks with increasing plastic deformation...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of a crack tip are assumed to lower the maximum cohesive force between metal atoms such that the local maximum tensile stress perpendicular to the plane of the crack then becomes equivalent to or greater than the lattice cohesive force, and fracture results. Enhanced Plastic Flow and Instability...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003400
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...% are common. These differences have implications in the efficacy of plastic shielding in the two classes of materials. Nonlinear behavior Because the mechanism of inelasticity in CFCCs involves cracking, the process is driven largely by normal (tensile) stresses. Plasticity in metals is driven...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... mechanics elastic-plastic stress integration finite element methods forming macroscopic aspects microscopic aspects numerical simulation plastic behavior sheet metal forming simulation springback tensile instability WITH ADVANCES in computer hardware and software, it is possible to model...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... fatigue loading is involved, particularly at high frequency. Hysteretic viscoelastic effects cause energy dissipation as heat, which can accumulate due to the low thermal conductivity of polymers, thus influencing failure mechanisms. The generalized uniaxial tensile creep behavior of plastics under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... during deformation is described in Ref 4 . A significant aspect of dynamic torsion testing is the occurrence of plastic instabilities due to thermal feedback when the test conditions approach adiabatic deformation ( Ref 2 , 7 , 8 ). For fully adiabatic conditions, the temperature rise, Δ T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract A cylindrical specimen compressed with friction at the die surfaces does not remain cylindrical in shape but becomes bulged or barreled. Tensile stresses associated with the bulging surface make the upset test a candidate for workability testing. This article discusses test...