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temperature-control methodology

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... well as the importance of time, and temperature control in heat treatment. Temperature Uniformity Survey, a testing procedure intended to map variations in temperature throughout the furnace work zone, helps in precise control of temperature. The article focuses on the measuring instruments used to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... temperature) and last at the carburized surface, where the M s temperature is lowest ( Ref 7 ). Obtaining compressive residual stresses at the surface of a quenched gear is a good practical example of the use of M s temperatures to control distortion and cracking in heat treatment. In addition, for...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to analyze the failure to understand the root causes. Depending on the type of casting failure, there are a variety of reasons for wanting to clearly understand how and why a part failed. In some cases the problem is related to an in-process quality-control issue; in others it is related to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... measurement methods, temperature control, materials handling, and filtration processes during the agitation process. The maintenance of quenching installations is also discussed. agitators computational fluid dynamics fixtures quench tank design quenchants quenching safety precautions MUCH...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion of tin and aluminum alloys ( Ref 3 ). The significance of temperature in hot extrusion is so great that some have coined the term thermal management to describe the practices by which it is controlled ( Ref 5 ). The temperatures developed during extrusion significantly influence the speed at...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005414
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rolled into flat products such as strips and plates or long products such as bars, rails, and structural shapes. Reheating of the steel is followed by successive reductions in rough and finish rolling mills. Rolling is generally finished at specific temperatures, followed in many cases by controlled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... date have shown measurable changes in powder chemistry and morphology, but bulk material property changes were minimal or not measurable. While many problems associated with feedstock quality can be mitigated with careful raw material quality control, the economics of AM encourage or sometimes require...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... promote undesirable grain growth. On the other hand, insufficient heating or excessive forging time may result in cracking. Control of the forging temperature, the amount of deformation, the forging time, and the precipitation of second phases is especially important for producing a desirable grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... stage I and stage II. Fractographically, more or less featureless facets were observed, but at higher magnification there was a complex topography with crystallographically controlled propagation and striations in some locations. Obstacles in the crack path were said to provide barriers that could stop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... processing of nickel-base superalloys aims to address the challenges posed by the variety of manufacturing operations by which parts are produced. These processes are chosen and carefully controlled for a specific end application. For instance, models have been developed to describe microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ( Ref 110 ). Electromagnetic acoustic transducer, radiography, thermography, and low-frequency vibration methods have not been employed extensively because of their high cost and/or unsuitability. Acoustic emission methods have proved to be effective tools to control quality during fabrication of MMCs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the ionization region of the mass spectrometer in a controlled quantity and controlled pressure. A wide variety of sample pressures ranging from vacuum to >100 psi (> 5000 torr) can usually be accommodated. These goals are accomplished differently for static and continuous sample configurations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... ionization is the most commonly used ionization technique for GC/MS; thus, for the remainder of this article, only electron ionization MS is discussed ( Ref 2 – 4 ). The direction and velocity of the positively charged ions are controlled by a repeller and accelerator plates that steer the ions out of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... engine must be able to handle a bird strike without an uncontained failure, fire, or engine mount failure. An engine must be able to shut down in a controlled fashion to pass this U.S. Federal Aviation Administration requirement. The jet engine industry has a test to determine the effect of a bird strike...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... supersolvus temperatures is also critical for controlling grain growth prior to and following the forging cycle. Powder-metallurgy nickel-base superalloys were originally developed specifically for the production of uniform, fine-grain microstructures (ASTM 11 or finer) for maximum strength capabilities...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... reductions of increasing severity at various temperatures Microalloyed forging steels often can be forged at lower temperatures than conventional carbon or alloys steels. The combination of metal displacement and heating during forging, followed by controlled cooling, strengthens the workpiece...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005224
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... into the bulk liquid. This controlled nucleation and growth concept is the genesis of various processes and methodologies to generate semisolid slurries from the liquid state. ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003989
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... each forging stroke, the workpiece is advanced, and an additional forging stroke is applied. When the dies reach the end of the workpiece, it may either be returned to the furnace for reasons of temperature control, or the direction of workpiece travel may be reversed, and forging will continue in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... and demand precise environmental-control capability and extremely high resolution in the measurement of displacements in cracked bodies associated with creep strains and in the measurement of crack increments at high temperatures. Such experimental capabilities and the concepts of nonlinear fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of TMF are testing in which temperature and mechanical loading must be independently controlled, intelligent application of TMF results to life prediction, and using physics-based models that incorporate the dominant interactions as a guide for extrapolating life prediction to regimes that preclude...