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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... factors that cause corrosion on metal artifacts, which include water, temperature fluctuations, pollutants, local conditions of acidity or alkalinity, vegetation, and animals. The corrosion processes experienced by five common metals, such as copper alloys, iron alloys, lead, zinc, and aluminum, used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
..., especially for the AM of metals. During thermal-based SAM processes, feed material is typically heated past its melting temperature and then rapidly cooled to a solid in a desired location. In polymers, the temperature fluctuation needed for this is relatively low, and smaller parts can usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of the furnace, variations in the atmospheric pressure, different air humidity in the case of open systems, or slight differences in temperature or temperature fluctuations in the furnace. Because of simplicity and high accuracy of measurements, the TGA method is the one most often encountered in corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... the intervals of steady-state loads. This type of scenario might occur in a fossil energy system, for example, when there are pressure and temperature fluctuations due to changes in output energy demands ( Ref 1 ). Creep-fatigue damage might also be of foremost concern in turbine casings where it is often...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Chemical composition and tapping temperature Variable at all times, reliably adjustable Depending on furnace process, adjustable only with off-grade iron Sulfur adsorption None 0.12–0.15% Emissions  Dust 0.5 kg/ton 8–12 kg/ton  Slag 10–20 kg/ton 40–100 kg/ton  Harmful exhaust gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... of a second phase requires relatively large localized composition fluctuations. This is the classical nucleation process, when initiation requires a “critical nuclei” size for further growth of the new phase. In contrast, if the α 0 solid-solution composition X 0 is at a lower temperature (e.g., T s...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... of a second phase requires relatively large localized composition fluctuations. This is the classical nucleation process, when initiation requires a “critical nuclei” size for further growth of the new phase. In contrast, if the α 0 solid-solution composition X 0 is at a lower temperature (e.g., T s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... transition temperature ( T g ) of dimethyl silicones provides excellent coalescence with minimal solvent addition and further improves the film integrity when cracks in the substrate expand or contract with temperature fluctuations. Color-plus-clear-coating systems involving the application of a colored...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Vessels for Elevated Temperature Service, MPC-17 , ASME , 1981 , p 1 – 85 4. Hoeppner D.W. , Parameters That Input to Application of Damage Tolerant Concepts to Critical Engine Components invited keynote paper , Damage Tolerance Concepts for Critical Engine Components , AGARD-CP-393...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... The thermal inertia of a process is its capacity to continue a temperature change in the same direction after the heat supply is altered, before it begins to move in the opposite direction. The time it takes to turn a process around determines the extent of its thermal inertia. A furnace...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... effects, such as ambient temperature changes or statistical local temperature fluctuations within the material; mechanical effects, such as mechanical shock or acoustical noise; or magnetic field effects, such as external fields, circuit reluctance changes, or magnetic surface contacts. In all...
Book Chapter

By Dongyang Li
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006382
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...) composites with SiO 2 and TiO 2 fillers, respectively, in the presence of artificial saliva. RT (room temperature) and HT (high temperature) refer to two conditions for obtaining SiO 2 particles. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 10 Wear-resistance ranges of various microconstituents of steel, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Specific conductance of seawater as a function of temperature and chlorinity Table 3 Specific conductance of seawater as a function of temperature and chlorinity Conductivity: S /m Chlorinity, ‰ Temperature, °C (°F) 0 (32) 5 (40) 10 (50) 15 (60) 20 (70) 25 (75)  1 0.1839 0.2134...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., concentration, phase, conductivity of corrodent  Circumstance Velocity of fluid, thin layer in equilibrium with relative humidity, cyclic wetting and drying, heat transfer, boiling, wear and fretting, deposits Temperature At metal surface exposed to environment Temperature fluctuation Stress...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The metal is moved smoothly and continuously under a protective layer of stationary metal oxides. Most important, metal temperature fluctuations are virtually eliminated. In addition, almost all manual work is eliminated. Directly below the trim press is the scrap conveyor, which goes to the melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... moves smoothly and continuously usually under a protective layer of stationary metal oxides. Most importantly, metal temperature fluctuations are thus significantly reduced, and manual work is lessened. The size of launders varies, of course, depending on the scale of the production operation. Small...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of TBCs can be easily performed using differential scanning calorimetry (ASTM E 1269). Reference and sample holders are equipped with heaters and temperature sensors that detect temperature fluctuations of the sample holder with respect to the reference holder as both are heated. A high-gain, closed-loop...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... h Enthalpy K Turbulent kinetic energy P Pressure Q Heat flux R Universal gas constant S Rate of deformation t Time T Temperature u Velocity W Molecular weight x Spatial location δ Kronecker delta function ε Dissipation rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
...Selected methods for measuring the enthalpy, specific heat, and transition temperatures of alloys Table 1 Selected methods for measuring the enthalpy, specific heat, and transition temperatures of alloys Technique Temperature range Principle Advantages Disadvantages Types of material...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... initiate on planes of maximum shear (longitudinal or transverse), then propagate under cyclic or fluctuating tensile stress acting at 45° to the circular rod axis. An X-pattern can form under reversed torsional loading. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 16 Characteristic X-pattern on the surface of a medium...