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temper graphite

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The most widely accepted alloy and temper designation system for aluminum and its alloys is maintained by the Aluminum Association and recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005326
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Malleable iron is a cast ferrous metal that is initially produced as white cast iron and is then heat treated to convert the carbon-containing phase from iron carbide to a nodular form of graphite called temper carbon. This article provides a discussion on the melting practices, heat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Fig. 1 Relations between observed and converted hardness values for gray and ductile irons. (a) Relation, as influenced by carbon equivalent, for gray iron containing type 3 graphite. (b) Relation for gray and ductile irons quenched in water from 900 °C (1650 °F) and tempered 2 h at 425 °C (800 °F...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003246
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... carbides, graphite, martensite, and a variety of intermetallic phases, nitrides, and nonmetallic inclusions. The article further describes the two-phase constituents including, tempered martensite, pearlite, and bainite and nonmetallic inclusions in steel that consist of two or more phases. common...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., referred to as temper carbon. This temper carbon forms only at elevated temperatures as iron carbide dissociates into austenite and graphite. It is therefore necessary that castings solidify entirely as white iron, thus limiting the casting section size to that which is practical for malleable iron...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... graphite, called “temper carbon,” takes the form of irregularly shaped nodules in a low-carbon steel matrix. As a result of the shape of the graphite, malleable iron possesses good ductility and toughness. Information regarding graphite morphology, properties, and heat treatments for malleable irons can be...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003110
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... primary graphite Pipe fittings and valve parts for pressure service Pearlitic and martensitic ASTM A 220 (c) 40010 280M10 Temper carbon in necessary matrix without primary cementite or graphite General engineering service at normal and elevated temperatures. Dimensional tolerance range for...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003106
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of a white cast iron, all cast irons have in common a microstructure that consists of graphite phase in a matrix that may be ferritic, pearlitic, bainitic, tempered martensitic, or combinations thereof. The four types of graphitic cast irons are roughly classified according to the morphology of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... tempered 1480 215 1310 190 <1.0 1655 240 1480 215 2 7.5 48 HRC (55 HRC) (55 HRC) MIM-2700 as-sintered 380 55 205 30 20.0 415 60 255 37 26 7.6 69 HRB (a) Where applicable, the matrix (converted) hardness is also given in parentheses. Source: MPIF Standard 35...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (1500 °F) 690 100 420 61 24.5 51 197 4130 Normalized at 870 °C (1600 °F) 670 97 435 63 25.5 59.5 197 Annealed at 865 °C (1585 °F) 560 81 460 67 21.5 59.6 217 Water quenched from 855 °C (1575 °F) and tempered at 540 °C (1000 °F) 1040 151 979 142 18.1 63.9 302 4140...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... structural applications. Also, because ductile iron does not require heat treatment to product graphite nodules (as malleable iron does to produce temper-carbon nodules), it can compete with malleable iron even though it requires a melt treatment and inoculation process. The mold yield is normally higher...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... clay bond is called temper water, this is known as the temper point). Above this water content, some of the water will exist as liquid water, which is not involved in bonding. Below this value, there is insufficient water to develop the bond fully. At the temper point, the green strength of the sand is...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... irons. Foundry practices are also described for compacted graphite, high-silicon ductile, and high-alloy white irons. alloying compacted graphite iron desulfurization high-alloy white iron high-nickel ductile iron high-silicon ductile iron high-silicon gray iron malleable iron sand molds...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., austenitizing, quenching, preheating, and tempering commonly employed in certain steels. These are water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, medium-alloy air-hardening cold-work tool steels, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the heat treating (stress relieving, normalizing, annealing, quenching, tempering, martempering, austempering, and age hardening) of different types of steels, including ultrahigh-strength steels, maraging steels, and powder metallurgy steels. Tabulating the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... glass products, including forming, grinding and polishing, and explores the advantages, disadvantages and steps involved in sol-gel process. It also discusses the types, processes and properties of annealed, laminated, and tempered glass, and presents the steps involved in glass decoration. The article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes alloy and temper designations of cast and wrought magnesium alloys. The role of mechanical properties and fabrication characteristics in selection of product forms for structural applications is covered. The article explores the use of magnesium alloys as a substitution for heavier metals such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... a ferritic malleable iron. Same material and test conditions as in Fig. 98 , 99 , 100 , and 101 , but at low magnification. Note that preferential sites for crack initiation and propagation are in interdendritic regions defined by the observed alignment of temper carbon (graphite). SEM, 4% nital...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Microstructures of ductile irons. All contain spheroidal graphite. Nital etch; 500×. (a) 100% ferrite; 170 HB. (b) 50% ferrite, 50% pearlite; 207 HB. (c) Spheroidite; 265 HB Fig. 4 Microstructure of malleable irons. All contain nodular graphite or temper carbon. Nital etch; 500×. (a) Ferritic malleable...