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temper embrittlement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treatment simulation mechanical properties quench cracking quenchants steel temper embrittlement tool steel HEAT TREATING is done to not only optimize microstructure formation and residual stress distribution, but also to reduce quench distortion and prevent quench cracking. Many studies on quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005591
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... properties nickel-base alloys quality control solidification solid-state transformation structural steel temper embrittlement titanium weld distortion welding electrodes ELECTROSLAG WELDING AND ELECTROGAS WELDING are two related procedures that are presently used to weld thick-section materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... solid-state transformations. It describes the electroslag process development and the applications of electroslag and electrogas processes. The article concludes with a discussion on weld defects, such as temper embrittlement, hydrogen cracking, and weld distortion. electrogas welding electroslag...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... embrittlement, strain-age and aluminum nitride embrittlement, thermal embrittlement, quench cracking, 475 deg C and sigma phase embrittlement (in FeCr alloys), temper embrittlement, and embrittlement caused by neutron irradiation. In addition, the article covers stress-corrosion cracking along with properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... section through the fracture surface is shown in Fig. 7(b) . A secondary crack has opened substantially and blunted in the ductile core. Plastic distortion of the core grain structure at the crack tip was evident. The seat wall was not through-carburized. The near-surface case microstructure was tempered...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Also, embrittling species are less likely to be influenced by the effects of grain- boundary impurities, such as antimony, phosphorus, and tin, which cause significant effects on the severity of hydrogen and temper embrittlement of metals. Investigations of SMIE and LMIE, therefore, can be interpreted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003635
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... liquid bismuth at 300 °C (570 °F), no embrittlement was noted in bend tests on a quenched-and-tempered steel. No intercrystalline attack was noted on the low-carbon steel after stress-rupture time- to-failure testing. In several studies of the embrittlement of AISI 4340 steel, embrittlement occurred at...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... actual value of the tensile stress that creates a crack in a particular component depends on these factors. For example, prior temper embrittlement of high-strength alloy steels enhances hydrogen stress cracking. The threshold stress intensity for crack growth is lowered, and intergranular fractures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen damage in all the major commercial alloy systems. It covers the broader topic of hydrogen damage, which can be quite complex and technical in nature. The article focuses on failure analysis where hydrogen embrittlement of a steel component is suspected. It provides practical advice for the failure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002388
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... embrittlement may occur at lower yield strengths. Tempering, in the case of martensitic stainless steels, and overaging, in the case of precipitation-hardening steels, can significantly increase the resistance to hydrogen embrittlement, but also lower the yield strength ( Ref 130 ); see Fig. 16 for an Fe-12Cr...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... is affected by grain structure. Interlayer gas tungsten arc reheating homogenized the weld structure but did not temper the weld metal. Specimens from the gas tungsten arc reheated weldment consistently exhibited higher hardness and lower resistance to hydrogen embrittlement than similar specimens...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... article discusses the embrittlement problems associated with tempering. Four types of equipment are used for tempering, namely, convection furnaces, salt bath furnaces, oil bath equipment and molten metal baths. Special procedures for tempering are briefly reviewed. cracking dimensional change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005873
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...) and residual stress but increases ductility and impact resistance (excluding cases when an embrittlement occurs). The effect of tempering on other mechanical properties is not as well defined and can vary, depending on the specific loading conditions, geometry of the component, its functionality, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... applications. For example, Type 403 martensitic stainless steel is used extensively for steam turbine rotor blades and rotors that operate at temperatures up to 480 °C (900 °F). For this type of application, the components are tempered at 590 °C (1100 °F) or higher, after which embrittlement at service...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... providing a refined, homogeneous, tempered microstructure with improved resistance to hydrogen stress cracking. As a baseline, comparison was made between HY-130 and HY-180 steels. Figure 20 plots rising step-load test results for HY-130 and HY-180 base metals, in addition to combinations of modified...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... considered here because they typically have molybdenum contents below 0.5%, which limits their resistance against creep and temper embrittlement. However, HSLA steels, which are discussed in the article “High-Strength Structural and High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels” in this Volume, may be effective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... the greatest effect. One proposed mechanism for the effect of copper is that it enhances the formation of dislocation loops that lead to hardening ( Ref 21 ). The effect of phosphorus has been attributed to a mechanism similar to the role it plays in temper embrittlement. This effect manifests itself...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... may cause grain growth. Several failures of 25-mm (1-in.) diam type H-11 airplane-wing bolts quenched and tempered to a tensile strength of 1793 to 1931 MPa (260 to 280 ksi) have been attributed to stress concentration that resulted from a large grain size in the shank. Other failures in these 25-mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... below 150 °C (300 °F) ( Ref 29 ). Ideally, equipment made from steels that have become temper embrittled should be preheated to above 120 °C (250 °F) before pressurization following a shutdown. Temper embrittlement is caused by the segregation of residual steel elements to the grain boundaries, and this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005985
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... as stainless, and even more for better corrosion resistance. It should be fully austenitic at some temperature. The temperature at which austenite forms on heating should be sufficiently high to permit tempering above the temper embrittlement range. These criteria are somewhat challenging...