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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Abstract Abstract The primary fossil fuels are generally defined as coal, oil, natural gas, tar sands, and shale oil. This article discusses the characteristics and the types of fuels used in fossil and fuel industries. It describes the energy conversion in fuels and outlines the efficiency...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005712
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and abrasive wear, such as nozzles and pumps ( Ref 12 ). Application Processes Overlays and Materials Selection Future Work References References 1. Canada's Tar Sands—Muck and Brass , The Economist , Jan 22 , 2011 , p 81 – 83 2. Miller P. , A Billion Barrels and Counting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... (fused), Cr 3 C 2 /NiCr PS, HVOF, HVAF, DG Pump case and impeller rings and sleeves, valve components, concrete pump and mixer parts, hydraulic rods, bushings and pins, hard chrome plate alternatives, cutting blades, paper pulp suction rolls, oil recovery parts in tar sand applications, directional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... expensive unless they can be recycled. Silica sand is generally not used because of the possibility of silicosis, its friable nature, and its rounded shape, which is not conducive to high productivity. Safety issues related to surface preparation should be given due consideration including: abrasive dust...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...Abstract Abstract Bitumen for coating usage can best be categorized as two fundamental but very different types: asphalts and coal tars. This article provides a detailed discussion on asphalt and coal tar hot-melt applications; asphalt and coal tar emulsions; asphalt and coal tar cutbacks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
...) 110 (230) Solvent resistance Excellent Impact resistance Good Bendability Good Abrasion resistance Good Cathodic disbondment resistance Excellent Mill application No Field application Yes Characteristics and limitations of coal tar epoxy Table 2 Characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in the sand. Factors other than differences in the oxygen concentration of the soil can produce a differential corrosion cell such as the one shown in Fig. 2 . For example, differences in the pH, or the concentration of aggressive ions such as chlorides in the soil, can produce differential corrosion cells...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... the moisture resistance of coal tars. Can embrittle after prolonged exposure to dry environments or temperatures above 150 °C (300 °F), and can soften and flow at temperatures as low as 40 °C (100 °F) Often used as relatively inexpensive coating in atmospheric service, where coal tars cannot be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... is coated with a flux and heated using a torch. The solder is flowed into the indentation or depression and blended with the contour of the part. All traces of flux are removed with solvents or neutralizers. After the surface is dry, it is primed and sanded smooth and then given the prime and finish coats...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of the corrosion shown in these pictures include the humid environment and the attack of hydrogen sulfide from the WWTP. Poor surface preparation prior to application of protective coatings, shipping and handling damage prior to erection, and abrasion and submersion of the pole when water and sand or gravel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... to be replaced after a few years ( Ref 5 ). Soil Corrosivity Corrosion is generally worst where the tank is in contact with the soil. Resistivity of the backfill or sand under the AST or bedding and padding surrounding the UST is an important factor in determining how aggressive that environment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Soil is a heterogeneous, porous material that ranges in character from soft spongy peats through soft clays, loams, and silts to coarse-grained sands and gravels. There are two large soil classes in the United States; west of the Mississippi River, soils generally accumulate lime and tend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... deposits, organolignins, other hard organic residues 3% sodium hydroxide+2% potassium permanganate solution (AP) for thin deposits, followed by acid 82–95 180–205 Soft metals. (Oxalic acid in the rinse between stages prevents chlorine gas generation from HCl+MnO 2 .) Heavy hydrocarbons: tars...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... with polyurethane finish coats Fig. 4 Cast iron water transmission main Fig. 6 Flocculation clarifier Fig. 7 One type of media filter used in water treatment plants Fig. 10 Corroded cast iron pipe, originally coated with a coal tar cutback coating, in a large urban...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., the hydroxyl group is attached to a benzene ring group, whereas with alcohols, the hydroxyl group is attached to a saturated (not double- or triple-bonded) carbon atom, as in R 3 –C–OH. Phenolics were first extracted from coal tar, but currently (2015) phenolic resins as used in coatings are principally...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006077
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and for high-solids, solvent-free coatings. They are used in coal tar epoxy systems, where they have better compatibility with the coal tar than polyamide resins. They are used for concrete patching compounds and for repairing cracks in concrete by injection. Numerous structurally different anhydrides can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rust, scale, dry solids, mold sand, ceramic shell coatings, or dried paint Roughening surfaces in preparation for bonding, painting, enameling, or other coating substances Removing large burrs or weld spatter Developing a uniform surface finish, even when slightly dissimilar surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and liquid coal tar pitch, and the joints are filled with a carbon paste. The cathode carbon blocks are embedded with steel bars to conduct electrical current out of the container. Thermal insulation is placed between the outer steel shell and the inner carbon lining to provide electrical and thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... sands industry of northern Alberta, Canada, where handling and processing of essentially silica-based solids (tar sands) results in extremely severe wear conditions. Clark and Llewellyn ( Ref 14 ) present slurry erosion data obtained on 11 commercially available wear-resistant pipeline steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... their appearance and/or improve their functional surface properties. Abrasive Blast Cleaning Abrasive blasting is most efficient in removing scale, sand, and mold residues from castings. It is readily adaptable to cleaning of castings because they are usually thick enough that no distortion results from...