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symmetric through-thickness laminates

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... adherends at similar angles and bonding the adherends with the cut areas fitted together.) However, attempts to use this repair joint did not meet with outstanding success. A boron-epoxy 27-ply multidirectional laminate joined to an equal thickness (3.5 mm, or 0.135 in.) of Ti-6Al-4V alloy through a 3...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... gradients through thick parts. Ideally, the ribs are parallel to the length of the mold. Often, this is not possible because the rib-to-face-sheet joints are used to help seal welded joints in the face sheet. If transverse ribs are used, large cutouts also should be used to maximize the flow of air under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...., diameter) billets containing 25 vol% silicon carbide in a 6000-series aluminum alloy. A through-diameter edge scan is shown in Fig. 44 , and a through-thickness axial scan is shown in Fig. 45 . The billet volume containing several of the indications found in this inspection was removed from the billet...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... which we generally want to fasten composite laminates. The full strength and stiffness characteristics of the laminate often cannot be transferred through the joint without a significant weight penalty. Thus, joints and other fastening devices are critical to the successful use of composite materials...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... time it takes for a pulse of ultrasonic energy to be transmitted through the test piece is measured; this time period can be 100 nanoseconds or less. Thickness is calculated as the product of the measured time of flight and the known acoustic-wave velocity. Ultrasound can be used to detect flaws by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... that the lay-up can be properly fabricated. Fig. 8 Orientation for viewing the part from the surface to be tooled inward through its thickness as viewed from the inside. A table is frequently supplied to describe ply number, orientation, and prepreg material. A formal system to allow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... thickness L with an adiabatic back wall interface (i.e., there is no heat transfer through the wall), the surface temperature is expressed as an infinite series (which converges within a few terms): (Eq 6) T ( x , t ) = Q ρ C L [ 1 + 2 ∑ n = 1 ∞ e − α n 2 π...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003038
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... understood. The term pultrusion refers to the final product and to the process. Most simply, it refers to a nonhomogeneous compilation of materials pulled through a die. In virtually every case, a continuous reinforcing fiber is integral to the process and the finished product. The matrix used is typically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... dissimilar metals are joined but also allows welding techniques to be used when direct joining is not possible. The principle of a clad transition metal is illustrated in Fig. 9 . In this example, aluminum is joined to low-carbon steel through a steel-clad aluminum transition metal. Steel and aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... fillers. The conductive fillers may be particulates, plates, or fibers. Electrical conductivity is observed in the composite when the filler volume is sufficient to support a continuous electrical path through the composite. The critical filler volume needed to achieve conductivity depends on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... used to detect and characterize defects that would remain undetected in conventional ultrasonic techniques ( Ref 13 ). In LLW testing, Lamb waves are induced in a plate through a mode conversion by obliquely insonifying the plate at a properly selected transmission frequency. If a laminate is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... rolling fabrication nonferrous materials shapes slabs steel universal rolling ROLLING OF METALS is perhaps the most important metalworking process. More than 90% of all the steel, aluminum, and copper produced—in 2001, more than 900 million tons of material worldwide—go through the rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... attainable with furnace through heating. Furthermore, because the hardness of the as-quenched steels depends only on carbon content, carbon steels can be used instead of alloy steels for most applications. Induction-hardened tractor axles have a significant increase in bending fatigue over axles that are...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... isolated for use as laminating and molding resins. Cyclotrimerization is resumed upon reheating, with development of cured-state properties identical to those obtained through uninterrupted heating of the monomer. Cure catalysts are normally added to accelerate conversion. Printed wiring boards...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... pointed to facilitate feeding through the die; it is then reduced in outside diameter while the wall thickness and the tube length are increased. The magnitudes of thickness increase and tube elongation depend on the flow stress of the drawn part, die geometry, and interface friction. Drawing with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of a specific measurement system or approach. Electromagnetic acoustic transducer operation is described in as graphic a manner as possible. A formal analytical description of EMATs is presented only through the published literature. Academic rigor is not an objective of this article. With respect to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... portion predominates. Wet techniques are those in which the inorganic powders are in an aqueous, polymeric, or organic solvent carrier. Dry pressing is the process by which ceramic powders are consolidated inside a cavity into a predetermined shape through the use of applied pressure acting in a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... concentration around defects ( Ref 20 ), controlled rolling ( Ref 21 ), magnetizing parameters ( Ref 11 ), magnetic easy axis ( Ref 22 ), and pearlite content ( Ref 23 ). Significant understanding of the origin of the MBN phenomenon was achieved through imaging of magnetic domains ( Ref 24 ) and through...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and small thicknesses are extensively used by the agriculture, horticulture, and building industries. Flat-Film or Sheet Extrusion ( Ref 1 ). In the flat-film process, the polymer melt is extruded through a slot die (T-shape or coat-hanger shape) that may be as wide as 3 m (10 ft). The die has...