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symmetric laminates

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-surface strains and curvatures and membrane stress and moment resultants. The article discusses the properties, such as thermal expansion, moisture expansion, and conductivity, of symmetric laminates and unsymmetric laminates. It describes the distribution of temperature and moisture through the thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Deformation behavior of composites. The deformations for composites with various symmetries are schematically illustrated for in-plane loading and bending. Generally, laminates that are symmetric through the thickness and symmetric in-plane with respect to the applied stress are used because no in-plane shear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... 499 – 514 10.1016/0045-7949(92)90383-B 6. Nemeth M.P. , Importance of Anisotropy on Buckling of Compression-Loaded Symmetric Composite Plates , AIAA J. , Vol 24 ( No. 11 ), Nov 1986 , p 1831 – 1835 7. Leissa A.W. , “Buckling of Laminated Composite Plates and Shell...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of plane stress. Stress-Strain Relationships for an Orthotropic Material Shear Coupling Phenomenon Symmetric Laminates and Laminate Notation Balanced Laminates Selection of test methods used to determine the mechanical properties of composite materials must take environmental factors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Gold Carbon, graphite Cathodic (least active) Symmetrically balanced laminates Table 3 Symmetrically balanced laminates Example Lamina Written as 1 ±45 o ,–45 o , 0 o , 0 o ,–45 o , +45 o (+45,–45, 0) S 2 ±45 o , 0 o /90 o , ±45 o , 0 o /90 o , 0 o /90 o , ±45 o...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... on either volume or weight percent. The theory used is not specified. Resulting lamina properties can be saved in the lamina database for use in laminate calculations. Lay-ups are entered in a tabular format, and special functions are available for creating symmetric laminates or rotating the entire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 1 Local shear stress in a symmetric laminate subject to a uniform axial stress in the x -direction (σ x ). The global strain is shown, but there is no in-plane shear strain (γ xy ). Local shear stress (τ xy ) is developed in each ply. Fig. 2 Distribution of shear stresses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and Laminate Geometry on the Dynamic Properties of CFRP , J. Compos. Mater ., Vol 7 , 1973 , p 402 – 428 10.1177/002199837300700401 11. Ni R.G. and Adams R.D. , The Damping and Dynamic Moduli of Symmetric Laminated Composite Beams—Theoretical and Experimental Results , J. Compos...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... structures, it is recommended that a basic quasi-isotropic, balanced, and symmetrical laminate using 0º, 90º, +45º, and–45º angles of orientation be designated in most cases. For larger-sized tools, using either wet lay-up or prepreg processes, plies are generally cut into conveniently sized rectangles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... be observed over most of the actual curve. The material and laminate form is limited to fully balanced and symmetric ±45° materials. As discussed previously, the stacking sequence, ply count, and ply thickness have a direct effect on coupon strength, making it important to follow the recommendations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... was made easy by cutting the plies to the proper size and serrating the edge where necessary; and forming the patch to a compound curvature, if necessary, could be done without expensive tools using the outer surface of the part to make a mold. The laminate stacking order was symmetric and continued...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... The final check on correct ply placement in a lay-up is made upon examination of the cured laminate. The inspector should be alert to any unusual distortion patterns in the part. A balanced, symmetrical laminate should exhibit little twisting or distortion. A minor amount of distortion may be expected from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 3 Multihull racing yacht ( Playstation ) for around- the-world races. Courtesy of Steve Fossett Ocean Challenge Fig. 4 Exploded view of typical yacht structure Fig. 6 Typical laminate for America's Cup hull skin Fig. 7 Typical rudder stock and blade Fig. 12...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... ˜ x θ T } in which stiffnesses A ij , B ij , and C ij are given in Table 1 . Note that for the deep shells, large t / R ratios, the shell curvature can induce extension-bending and/or bending-twisting coupling even for balanced, symmetric laminated constructions, due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... concentrator materials. Available materials include laminations ( Fig. 22 ), pure ferrites, and materials that consist of iron- and ferrite-base compressed powder particles ( Fig. 23 ), composite layered materials, and so on ( Ref 1 , 18 , 19 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 ). Proper selection depends on a variety...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... sequence effects are important, however, even in a symmetric, balanced laminate. For failure modes influenced by bending loads or for failure modes sensitive to free-edge stresses, the specific order of the plies has a significant effect and warrants consideration in the development of allowables...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... require the detection of delaminations with a linear dimension larger than 6.4 mm (0.25 in.). Impact damage Loss of compressive strength under static load Ply gap Strength degradation depends on stacking order and location. For [0, 45, 90,–45] 2S laminate, strength is reduced 9% due to gap(s...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Relationship between prepreg form and conformability to component curvature Fig. 9 Laminate stiffness provided by a range of prepreg reinforcement types. Range shows the effect of lay-up. UD, unidirectional; HS, high strength; IM, intermediate modulus; HM, high modulus Fig. 1 FiberSIM model...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., flakes, pipe Rolled products—laminations, inclusions, tears, seams, cracks Castings—slag, porosity, cold shuts, tears, shrinkage cracks, inclusions Service-induced flaws: fatigue cracks, corrosion, erosion, stress-corrosion cracks Angle-beam, contact-type units Manufacturing-induced...