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symmetric laminates

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... the development of the relations between mid-surface strains and curvatures and membrane stress and moment resultants. The article discusses the properties, such as thermal expansion, moisture expansion, and conductivity, of symmetric laminates and unsymmetric laminates. It describes the distribution...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002415
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract Knowledge of fatigue behavior at the laminate level is essential for understanding the fatigue life of a laminated composite structure. This article describes fatigue failure of composite laminates in terms of layer cracking, delamination, and fiber break and interface debonding. It...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... laminates are constructed from lamina with uniaxial fiber orientation and frequently from textile fabrics as well. The article describes the characteristics of symmetric in-plane and through-thickness laminates; asymmetric in-plane and symmetric through-thickness laminates; asymmetric laminates; and curved...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Abstract This article provides general mechanical testing guidelines for the characterization of lamina and laminate properties. The guidelines are provided for tensile property, compressive property, shear property, flexure property, fracture toughness, and fatigue property test methods. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... buckling theory for thin, symmetric, anisotropic plates. In the full form of the plate equations, the terms D 16 and D 26 are bending-twisting coupling terms. If D 16 = D 26 = 0, then the plate is orthotropic in bending. Many composite laminates are not exactly orthotropic (see the subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-isotropic, balanced, and symmetrical laminate using 0º, 90º, +45º, and–45º angles of orientation be designated in most cases. For larger-sized tools, using either wet lay-up or prepreg processes, plies are generally cut into conveniently sized rectangles or “tiles” to make the lay-up more manageable. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., even in a symmetric, balanced laminate. For failure modes influenced by bending loads or for failure modes sensitive to free-edge stresses, the specific order of the plies has a significant effect and warrants consideration in the development of allowables. The environment in which a composite...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fabrics: The following terms apply to the resin used as a matrix as well as impregnating resins: Fig. 2 Typical balanced-symmetric laminate Fig. 3 Plain weave, yarn interlacing Fig. 4 Fiber-harness satin weave, interlacing Fig. 5 Unidirectional weave Table 2...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... midplane is a mirror image of the stacking sequence above the midplane is referred to as a symmetric laminate. For a symmetric laminate, such as a [0°/90° 2 /0°] plate, the notation can be abbreviated by using [0°/90°] S , where the subscript “S” denotes that the stacking sequence is repeated symmetrically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... laminate (the z -direction in Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Local shear stress in a symmetric laminate subject to a uniform axial stress in the x -direction (σ x ). The global strain is shown, but there is no in-plane shear strain (γ xy ). Local shear stress (τ xy ) is developed in each ply. In the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... of the part to make a mold. The laminate stacking order was symmetric and continued to be even as internal plies were terminated. With this type of repair, locating the internal patch may require some ingenuity. With access limited to the external surface, the patch must be installed through the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., multihull racers of 35 m or more, and large luxury cruising craft. The article discusses tooling, laminating practice, curing, mold removal, and quality control, for manufacturing hulls, decks, masts, and appendages using composites. low-volume production sailing craft quality control composites...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003383
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... shapes, thicknesses, and boundary conditions. Some examples are given by P. Cawley and R.D. Adams ( Ref 13 ). All the plates discussed here are midplane symmetric, which eliminates bending-stretching coupling. It is, however, possible to include this effect in the analysis if asymmetrical laminates are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... percent. The theory used is not specified. Resulting lamina properties can be saved in the lamina database for use in laminate calculations. Lay-ups are entered in a tabular format, and special functions are available for creating symmetric laminates or rotating the entire laminate by some angle. These...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... accurately controlled. Another complication for the glass fabric, wet lay- up technology was its inability to provide laminated components with tightly packed, accurately aligned fibers. The “runniness” of liquid wet lay-up resins cannot hold fibers where placed by laminator tools. To provide a stable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... deep shells, large t / R ratios, the shell curvature can induce extension-bending and/or bending-twisting coupling even for balanced, symmetric laminated constructions, due to nonzero B ij terms. Also, compare the expressions for A ij , B ij , and D ij , as given in Table 1 , with...
Book Chapter

By Greg Kress
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
..., cyanate ester. Polymers are classified as being thermoplastic or thermoset. Other matrices : Metal, ceramic, carbon, glass Structural configurations: Solid laminate, sandwich panels, stiffened panels Core materials: Honeycomb, foam, wood, syntactic Processing options include...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.9781627081955
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... examined by this method. There is no good substitute for frequent in-process inspections. The final check on correct ply placement in a lay-up is made upon examination of the cured laminate. The inspector should be alert to any unusual distortion patterns in the part. A balanced, symmetrical laminate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... necessary to include fibers in every direction for which some load condition exists. In contrast, for adhesively bonded laminated metal alloy structures, each laminate can perform double or triple duties, because the same layers can react to different loads that do not occur simultaneously. The need for...