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switching units

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... bipolar transistors (IGBTs) Fig. 5 Common power semiconductor types, with power ranges and switching frequencies. IGBT, insulated-gate bipolar transistor; MOSFET, metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor Fig. 15 Parallel resonance circuit used in induction units Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... At that time, a second unit, which has been idly standing by, is switched into the system, commonly by a sensing and switching subsystem. For a two-unit standby system, the reliability is the probability that unit 1 succeeds for the entire period ( t ) or that unit 1 fails at some time t 1 prior to t...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., and various switching devices, namely, silicon-controlled rectifiers, insulated-gate bipolar transistors, and metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. The article also provides information on frequency-multiplication harmonic-induction power supplies, namely, push-pull and half-bridge inverters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pattern as revealed by an oscilloscope depends on the degree of ripple in the rectifier output and the quickness of response in the internal switching circuitry of the controller. High-quality units produce extremely sharp square-wave patterns ( Fig. 3 and 4 ). Figure 5 illustrates the wave form...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... a visual size comparison between a 400 A constant current/constant voltage (CC/CV) transformer welder and a 450 A inverter-based CC/CV welder. Each individual unit incorporates a power-off, CV output, CC output switch. All of the units connected to the main power source do not need to be welding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... reliable monitoring and control of motion and position of various mechanical components with the help of mechanical limit switches, proximity sensors, and distance- and position-measuring devices. Using inputs from both flow meters and sensors, such as thermocouples and oxygen sensors, flow measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005899
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... (a) Mechanical switching. (b) Electronic power distribution. Source: Ref 11 Fig. 21 Changing frequency by switching (a) capacitors and (b) coil sections. Source: Ref 15 Fig. 22 Distribution of the magnetic flux density at level zero on the furnace platform. Source: Ref 13 Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... calculation.) Comparison of cost-effectiveness of metal inert gas (MIG) and laser welding systems Table 3 Comparison of cost-effectiveness of metal inert gas (MIG) and laser welding systems MIG system Laser system Units per hour 90 90 Net units per year 375,840 422,820...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...-phase input unit, a standard technique is to place the switching control in the primary neutral conductor of the HV transformer ( Fig. 11 ). The secondary circuitry is three-phase or six-phase, full-wave rectified, and filtered. The input to resistance welding power sources is usually 230 or 460 V...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... contents of a furnace increase, while it simultaneously compensates for lining wear. No capacitor switching is required as in the line frequency units. In addition, a single potentiometer offers stepless and infinite control, eliminating the need for tap changer systems for power control. Modern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... soils Chlorinated-solvent degreaser (inhibited trichloroethylene, for example) Aluminum and zinc Castings, open-mesh air filters, used automotive carburetor parts, valves, switch components, drawn wire Chips, lubricants, and general grime Moderately alkaline, specially inhibited to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... (a) This results in a vacancy flux from the former to the latter areas, and a mass flux in the opposite direction. (b) The resulting change in grain dimensions is equivalent to a creep strain. Fig. 22 (a) X dislocation sources per unit volume emit dislocations over a radius L . Continued emission...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... elements is small compared to that dissipated in internal switching and is only modeled during design stages where heat removal and packaging are considered. Analog simulators must evaluate continuous changes in values in continuous time. The analog simulation engine must solve systems of simultaneous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... was that they did not have the same issue. The units without the incoming corrosion problems managed their supercarrier boats in a manner that made sure boats were switched either before or just after metal deposition. In order to implement a boat switch at metal deposition, more boats would have...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...) With a larger defect and transmission blocked. (d) Example of a pitch-catch measurement, with sound reflected from the defect and back wall. Adapted from Ref 2 Fig. 3 Schematic of digital ultrasound unit in which T/R is a transmit-receive connection for a single transducer, and R is the receive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005854
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Switch Modern controls are necessary to obtain the greatest benefits from modern induction heating systems. The benefits of a well-designed system are valuable to the system owner: enhanced control, minimized scrap, and maximum uptime. In the event of a fault, the control system can direct...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., switches, terminals, commutator segments, chemical process equipment, printing rolls, clad metals, printed circuit foil C10800 (oxygen-free, low-phosphorus copper) Fabrication characteristics same as C10100. Uses: refrigerators; air conditioners; gas heater lines; oil burner tubes; plumbing pipe...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005904
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...Abstract Abstract The crucible induction furnace is growing as an alternative melting unit to the cupola furnace due to its low specific power and reduced power consumption during solid melting material. This article details the process engineering features of the crucible induction furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... furnaces Fig. 10 Electrical principle of (a) serial resonant converter and (b) parallel resonant converter Fig. 11 Electrical principle of tandem arrangement. (a) Mechanical switching. (b) Electronic power distribution. Source: ABP Induction Fig. 18 Line frequency power supply...