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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001036
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... by neutron irradiation include swelling (volume increase), irradiation hardening, and irradiation embrittlement (the influence of irradiation hardening on fracture toughness). These effects are primarily associated with high-energy (greater than 0.1 MeV) neutrons. Consequently, irradiation damage from...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003377
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... describes a variety of analytical methods that are used to determine the various physical properties of the UDC. These properties include elasticity, thermal expansion coefficients, moisture swelling coefficients, static and dynamic viscoelastic properties, conductivity, and moisture diffusivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... in swelling, hardening, or softening phenomena; extraction of ingredients; chemical conversion of the nonmetallic constituents; cross-linking oxidation; and/or substitution reactions. The article also describes the corrosion resistance of nonmetallic materials such as rubber and elastomeric materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... crack agent, flexible, possible oxidizing agent, slightly crazed >30–120=6>30≤120 … 4 >2.0–3.0 >40.0–50.0 >15–18 70–<75 Distorted, warped, softened, slight swelling, blistered, known stress crack agent >120–240=7>120≤240 >90–900 3 >3.0–4.0 >50.0–70.0...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003695
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... to 1. Chlorine content also imparts better flame resistance, weatherability, and ozone resistance than experienced with diene rubbers. The swelling resistance of CR to mineral, vegetable, and animal oils is also better than the nonpolar diene-based rubbers. Chloroprene rubber has good resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... typically swell 5 to 15% due to uptake of sealed fluid. Swelling of more than 50%, which is possible in some cases, is considered unacceptable (shrinking can also be an issue, and this is discussed later in the section “Seal Wear and Damage: Causes and Solutions” , subsection “Shrinkage of Elastomers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006580
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
.... As stated earlier, quality in this context refers to adherence to the original digital CAD geometry representation. As material is extruded through the hot end and nozzle, it is compressed. When it leaves the nozzle, it expands, as shown in Fig. 10 . This phenomenon, referred to as die swelling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...Irradiation-assisted SCC service experience Table 1 Irradiation-assisted SCC service experience Component Material Reactor type Possible sources of stress Fuel cladding 304 SS BWR Fuel swelling 304 SS PWR Fuel swelling Fuel cladding (a) 20%Cr/25%Ni/Nb AGR Fuel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Schematic of the high-speed resin transfer molding process Fig. 19 Filament winding Fig. 18 Pultrusion Fig. 4 Types of injection molding gates. (a) Tab gate. (b) Pinpoint gate. (c) Sub gate. (d) Fan gate. PL, parting line Fig. 11 Die swell in extrusion. (a) Incorrect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Exfoliation corrosion often initiates at laterally sheared edges exposed to the environment. The corrosion products tend to swell or pry open the material, revealing alternate layers or leafing of corroded and uncorroded structure. Highly cold-worked materials, which have elongated grain boundaries, and thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006046
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.... Their main advantages are that they have no hydrolyzable bonds (and are thus completely resistant to hydrolysis, or swelling by water) and they have very good adhesion properties. They also resist swelling in the presence of oils. However, they turn yellowish-brown during baking and are thus limited...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., or there are agglomerations of pigments not completely wet out by the organic binder, water can collect and “pool,” causing a swelling of the film and additional water penetration. Water-soluble salts, including sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and other chlorides (found in marine environments and in deicing salts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... density Increase in sintering temperature Faster densification and grain growth; very rapid grain growth can lead to trapped pores in grains, pore growth and swelling; greater expense Increase in sintering time Larger final grain size; swelling due to grain growth and pore coalescence can occur...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... recompresses the melt, and the second metering zone of the feed screw provides proper head pressure to extrude the melt through the die at the proper rate ( Fig. 4 ). A complication encountered in the extrusion of continuous shapes is die swell, which is the swelling of the polymer when the elastic energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003467
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Fig. 2 Low magnification SEM view of shiny areas on Kevlar/epoxy paddle surface. 48× Fig. 3 Low magnification SEM view of dull areas on Kevlar/epoxy paddle surface. 48× Fig. 4 Higher magnification SEM view shiny surface of Kevlar/epoxy paddle showing resin swelling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., further promoting water permeation. At areas where paint adhesion is relatively poor, cross linking is less dense, or agglomerations of pigments are not completely wetted by the organic binder, water may collect and pool, causing a swelling of the film and additional water penetration. Water-soluble salts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Solvents can be used to remove the dispersed phase but also may be used to swell the phase or cause a thermoplastic area to craze. This technique can provide exceptional contrast. Tetrahydrofuran can be used to swell or dissolve rubber phases in thermoset matrices. This solvent swells cross-linked rubber...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... A 210: Swells A 212 (a) Excess metal in the vicinity of the gate or beneath the sprue Erosion, cut, or wash A 213 (a) Metal projections in the form of elongated areas in the direction of mold assembly Crush A 220: Projections with rough surfaces A 221 (a) Projections...