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sustained-load threshold

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Abstract This article summarizes the metallurgy of carbon and alloy steels, followed by discussions on their major mechanical properties, namely, static fracture toughness, dynamic fracture toughness, fatigue or sustained-load crack growth rates, and fatigue or sustained-load thresholds...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... = 0.95) and 5% (corresponding to R = 0.90) of the sustained load, ripple loading significantly reduced the values of time to failure and the apparent cracking threshold. For instance, at the initial stress intensity of 90 MPa m , which is well below the K Iscc of 110 MPa m , SCC...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... with crack extension as the load level is sustained. Crack initiation is signaled by a drop in load ( Fig. 11 ). The rising step-load test was developed as an accelerated low-cost test for measuring the resistance of steels (particularly weldments) to hydrogen embrittlement ( Ref 13 , 17 ). The threshold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... in service Source of sustained tension in service Constant strain Constant load Residual stress  Quenching after heat treatment X …  Forming X …  Welding X … Misalignment (fit-up stresses) X … Interference fasteners X … Interference bushings  Rigid X...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... refers to stable crack propagation under sustained loads in the presence of an embrittling environment (which is commonly known as stress-corrosion crack growth in the metallurgy and engineering literature). The expression cyclic fatigue is used in the ceramics community to describe cyclic load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
... smooth samples Tests on statically loaded precracked samples Tests using slowly straining samples Although comparisons can be influenced significantly by test procedures, commonly used criteria for SCC resistance from these tests include: Stress threshold (σ th ) below which laboratory...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and the tensile stresses must be above some threshold value. The tensile stress may be residual stress resulting from heat treatment or fabrication of the metal, may be developed by external loading, or may be a combination of these conditions. Stress-corrosion cracking occurs under service conditions, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... stabilizer upper surface, and so on to sustain a two-bay skin crack with a broken central stiffener at limit load. This damage scenario is consistent with expected cracking scenarios, and in many cases it relieves airline operators of the need for considerable sophisticated nondestructive inspection (NDI...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... weight, crystallinity, degree of cross linking, and backbone molecular structure of the polymer ( Ref 26 – 60 ). Polymers are also prone to time-dependent behavior, and fatigue characterization must incorporate viscoelastic effects; such effects may include sustained loading, sensitivity to peak stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... are intrinsically flawed and capable of sustaining a considerable amount of stable crack growth before failure. The fatigue life of a component based on this defect-tolerant approach is dictated by the number of loading cycles needed to propagate a crack of an initial size to a critical dimension. Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., before cracking occurs. In this regard, HSC has also been referred to as static fatigue, sustained-load cracking, or hydrogen-induced delayed fracture. This type of hydrogen damage occurs most often in high-strength steels (tensile strength in excess of approximately 1240 MPa, or 180 ksi), although...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... stress. The phenomenon is characterized by the simultaneous interactions of sustained static or very slowly changing loads on susceptible materials that have internal dissolved atomic hydrogen. Hydrogen stress cracking involves the absorption of hydrogen, followed by hydrogen diffusion to regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of a complex subject, and, like most simplifications, it fails to identify the boundaries of the subject. As a result, before this problem can be discussed in detail, one must clearly define the type of loading involved, the types of materials involved, the types of environments that cause this type of crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... growth characteristics under monotonic, sustained, and cyclic loads must be incorporated in the design. The final instability parameter, such as plane strain fracture toughness ( K Ic ), also must be incorporated in design. The damage-tolerant approach is based on the ability to track the damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... and no load, R becomes 0. If the stress is cycled between two tensile stresses, R becomes a positive number less than 1. A stress ratio R of 1 indicates no variation in stress, making the test a sustained-load SCC test rather than a corrosion-fatigue test. Presentation of Fatigue Data High-cycle...
Book Chapter

By Bruce Craig
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... occurs at sustained loads below the yield strength of the material. This cracking mechanism depends on the hydrogen fugacity, strength level of the material, heat treatment/microstructure, applied stress, and temperature. For many steels, a threshold stress exists below which hydrogen stress cracking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... to damage tolerance analysis of aircraft structures is discussed in Ref 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 . The key products developed during this period (mid-1970 to 1991) include: New fracture mechanics indexes for characterizing material residual strength and sustained load crack growth at high temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... Testing of Plating Processes and Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals.” Other industrial methods include sustained or step-load stress tests to evaluate the effectiveness of the hydrogen embrittlement relief treatments on hardware such as springs or structural fasteners. With the development of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
.... A component is a series system if it fails when one discrete element fails. This type of failure can be modeled using weakest-link reliability theories. A component is a parallel system when failure of a single element does not cause the component to fail. In this case, the remaining elements sustain load...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... employs the stress-life method of fatigue life assessment. The article examines the behavior of three different metallic materials used in the design and manufacture of structural components: steel, aluminum, and titanium. It also reviews the effects of retardation and spectrum load on component life...