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sustained-load crack propagation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... not only understand the obvious loading conditions but to also investigate unexpected loading conditions that may occur and result in the initiation and propagation of SCC. The development of stress-corrosion cracks involves both crack initiation and crack propagation. Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... various combinations of loading Modes I, II, and III, as well as the constant change in orientation of the local plane of fracture as the crack propagates, result in asymmetrical straining of the mating fracture surfaces. Figure 8 shows the effect of such asymmetry on dimple size. The surface (B) that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract Fatigue failures may occur in components subjected to fluctuating (time-dependent) loading as a result of progressive localized permanent damage described by the stages of crack initiation, cyclic crack propagation, and subsequent final fracture after a given number of load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... practical failure investigation. The article describes the effects of mechanical loading on a part in service and provides information on laboratory fracture examination. brittle crack propagation ductile crack propagation embrittlement mixed-mode cracking overload fractures stress concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of a broken AISI 4140 steel load cell. The radial marks indicate that two crack origins formed at the bottom surface of the cell, apparently near the toe of a weld. Note the continuous shear lip around the top edge. See also Fig. 337 and 338 . Actual size Fig. 337 Mating fracture surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... influence the reinforcement-matrix interface in a ceramic-matrix composite Factor Example Intrinsic property interaction Load transfer Magnitude of bonding Strong, none, or mixed Type of bonding Chemical, physical, mixed Type of coating Fugitive or “permanent” Reaction products...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... becomes more difficult. It is a tribute to commercial furnace designers that this problem has been overcome in most cases. A bottom-loaded elevator furnace is one design typically used in batch furnaces. In a continuous furnace, the temperature at any location is constant with time. The parts are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000613
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... 794 Fracture caused by stress-corrosion cracking in a threaded specimen of AISI H11 tool steel (same heat treatment and tensile strength as in Fig. 786 ) at a sustained loading of 75% tensile strength in a 3.5% NaCl environment at room temperature. Appreciable corrosion is evident. See also Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... location. (c) Branched, intergranular cracking at a crack tip. Original magnification: 27×. Source: Ref 8 Sustained load cracking (SLC) and delayed failures have been observed at ambient temperatures in 6351-T6 aluminum alloy, which contains small amounts of lead (>10 ppm). It is perhaps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions. (b) High-quality transmission electron microscopy replica showing elongated shear dimples from fatigue region For the Fe-4Ni (at.%) in Fig. 7(a) , the type of loading environment that produced this fracture surface is not obvious. It could be brittle IG cracking in a benign or aggressive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... scratches perpendicular to the loading direction. Smooth SCC specimens allow for the evaluation of the total SCC life, which includes crack nucleation and propagation. Testing can be conducted under constant extension or strain, constant load, and constant extension or strain rate. The selection of a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... by repetitive cyclic loading. The cracks may start at any one of several surface or subsurface discontinuities. Usually, the repetitive nature of the load cycles is reflected in a stepwise growth of the fatigue crack, producing the parallel microscopic marks known as fatigue striations. These can be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analyst will usually seek to answer some basic questions: Were the loads and stresses encountered by the part at the level anticipated during design? Or did some unexpected condition(s) contribute to the failure? Was the material in the area of the cracking or deformation capable of meeting the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... prominent. Corrosion fatigue tests can be classified as to whether the main process occurring over the test is crack itiation or propagation. In crack initiation testing, the specimen generally has a smooth surface, and either axial or bending loads are applied. Thus the sample will be subjected to...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of predicting crack initiation and propagation life. These operating temperatures are in the range where several time-dependent damage mechanisms can exist during the cyclic loading and during the dwell period and are therefore a design and operational concern. Stress relaxation occurs during cruise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strength (i.e., creep rate, stress rupture) and resistance to fracture under creep conditions. Fig. 2 Creep crack in a turbine vane. Courtesy of M. Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Failures from creep deformation depend on material, time-temperature exposure, loading conditions...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... present on the fracture surface, pointing toward the origin of the crack, especially in brittle fractures in flat, platelike components. Fatigue fractures result from cyclic loading, and appear brittle and generally smooth on a macroscopic scale. They are characterized by incremental propagation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... corrosion cells, such as active pits and crevices, fretting sites, or environment-assisted cracks. Fretting corrosion occurs at contacting surfaces, which are under load and undergo small relative motion. This form of corrosion combines some features of crevice corrosion and such industrial corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 35 ). In α and, especially, α-β alloys, hydrogen contents above critical levels can result in sustained-load cracking, which dramatically reduces useful maximum service loads in notched or cracked components under slow strain rate or constant tensile load situations ( Ref 31 , Ref 32 , Ref 33...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...; keep velocity low; remove gases from liquid phase; use erosion-resistant alloy Fretting Chafing or galling, often occurring during shipment Lubricate contacting surfaces; interleave sheets of paper between sheets of metal; decrease load on bearing surfaces Intergranular corrosion Corrosion...