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sustained-load crack propagation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
.... It addresses fatigue crack propagation and sustained-load crack propagation, as well as the fundamental aspects of fracture in steels. The article illustrates the effects of variations in the alloy chemistry, microstructure, temperature, strain rate, and environment on various fracture toughness or crack...
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Published: 01 January 1997
the matrix but around the fibers. Multiple cracks accumulate if the fibers bridging the cracks can sustain the load. (c) After attaining multiple matrix cracks with an equilibrium spacing, fibers fail at flaws with increasing load, and not necessarily in the bridged regions of highest stress. (d) Fibers pull More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... 24 , 58 , 86 , 88 ). Insight into quasi-static fracture processes elucidates polymeric micromechanisms that may be activated in an advancing flaw caused by cyclic or sustained loading. Fatigue Crack Propagation Qualitative microscale mechanistic fracture provides the foundation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... are intrinsically flawed and capable of sustaining a considerable amount of stable crack growth before failure. The fatigue life of a component based on this defect-tolerant approach is dictated by the number of loading cycles needed to propagate a crack of an initial size to a critical dimension. Fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... refers to stable crack propagation under sustained loads in the presence of an embrittling environment (which is commonly known as stress-corrosion crack growth in the metallurgy and engineering literature). The expression cyclic fatigue is used in the ceramics community to describe cyclic load...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002348
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
..., it is still imperative that all designs consider those aspects of nucleation processes other than fatigue that may act to nucleate cracks that could propagate under the influence of cyclic loads. The intrinsic state of the material and all potential sources of cracks must also be evaluated. Nonetheless...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... cracking may very well be the same, as the only difference between these two phenomena is the mode of loading (cyclic vs. sustained). Stress-corrosion cracking is covered elsewhere in this Volume. Hydrogen-Assisted Cracking In corrosion fatigue, hydrogen (either atomic or protonic) is generated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... Crack Propagation , Fracture Mechanics—17 , STP 905, ASTM , 1986 , p 155 – 168 45. Wei R.P. and Landes J.L. , Correlation Between Sustained-Load and Fatigue Crack Growth in High-Strength Steels , Materials Research and Standards , TMRSA , Vol 9 , 1969 , p 25 – 28 46...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02b.a0006545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-210-5
.... A specific mechanism depends on the type of material, the environment, and the loading conditions, and it is unlikely that a single mechanism for SCC exists. Examples of mechanisms to account for the subcritical crack propagation phase of SCC include ( Ref 13 ): When fresh metal is exposed by plastic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... consists of three stages: Stage I: Initial fatigue damage leading to crack nucleation and crack initiation Stage II: Progressive cyclic growth of a crack (crack propagation) until the remaining uncracked cross section of a part becomes too weak to sustain the loads imposed Stage III...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... failure process in which sustained tensile stress and chemical attack combine to initiate and propagate fracture in a metal part. Stress-corrosion cracking is produced by the synergistic action of sustained tensile stress and a specific corrosive environment, causing failure in less time than would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002381
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... the end result of crack growth from a small defect or flaw. Due to repeated or sustained “normal” service loads, a crack may develop (starting from a flaw or stress concentration) and slowly grow in size. Cracks and defects impair the strength of the component. Thus, during the continuing development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003633
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... concentration does occur at such flaws, these defects do not exceed the critical value required to cause mechanical fracture of the material in an inert environment ( K SCC < K crit ). Precorrosion followed by loading in an inert environment will not result in any observable crack propagation, while...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002362
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... propagation in 4130 steel with a yield strength of 1330 MPa (195 ksi). The band of data about the moist air line represents cracking in 13 steels with varying microstructures and yield strength ranging from 300 to 2100 MPa (45 to 3054 ksi). Temperature 23 °C (75 °F), frequency 0.1 Hz, load ratio 0.1. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... member under redistributed loads after primary member failure. Locations where Crack Propagation Rates are High and Fracture Toughness Values are low Locations where crack propagation rates are high and fracture toughness values are low should be reviewed. Results of Full-Scale Fatigue Testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... or notched specimens. However, it is difficult to distinguish between CFC initiation and CFC propagation life with this type of testing. In crack propagation testing, fracture mechanics methods are used to determine the crack growth rates of preexisting cracks under cyclic loading. Preexisting cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article describes the incubation, nucleation, and propagation of stress-corrosion cracking and how to evaluate it using standard tests. It discusses constant-strain, constant-load, bending, and uniaxial tension testing and how they compare when evaluating smooth and precracked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002392
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... principles can sustain damage and remain airworthy until the damage is detected and repaired. This necessitates periodic inspection to examine the structure to determine if the primary load carrying member contains cracks. The frequency of these inspections is typically assigned by the manufacturer based...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... to avoid or to remove machining marks or scratches perpendicular to the loading direction. Smooth Specimen Testing Smooth SCC specimens allow for the evaluation of the total SCC life, which includes crack nucleation and propagation. Testing can be conducted under constant extension or strain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is knowledgeable, the fracture appearance reveals details of the loading events that culminated in fracture. An understanding of how cracks initiate and propagate microscopically to cause bulk (macroscale) fracture is an essential part of fractography. The ability to accomplish this resides in interpretation...