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sustained-load crack growth rate

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., deposition rate, gaseous contamination, and concurrent energetic particle bombardment (flux, particle mass, energy) Details of film growth on the substrate surface —e.g., substrate temperature, nucleation, interface formation, interfacial flaw generation, energy input to the growing film, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000608
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... a toughness test in air; the rate of crack growth was in the range of rapid, unstable fracture. Dimples in an extremely wide variety of sizes and channels formed by linear coalescence of voids are evident. See Fig. 330 , 331 , 332 , 333 , 334 , and 335 for the fracture behavior of this...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... behavior of modified wedge-opening load, cantilever beam, and contoured double-cantilever beam test specimens The contoured double-cantilever beam test is used to measure crack growth rate a constant stress-intensity factor. This test simplifies the calculation of stress intensity by using a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-corrosion susceptibility and crack growth rate of austenitic stainless steel can be described by the degree of sensitization (DOS), as measured by corrosion tests such as the Strauss or electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation tests. Quantitative comparisons between susceptibility, as measured by the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analyst will usually seek to answer some basic questions: Were the loads and stresses encountered by the part at the level anticipated during design? Or did some unexpected condition(s) contribute to the failure? Was the material in the area of the cracking or deformation capable of meeting the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... conditions of reasonably constant cyclic loading frequency and advancing within the nominal range of 10 −5 to 10 −3 mm/cycle, [1] the crack growth rate, da/dN , can be expressed as a function of the stress intensity factor K ( Ref 15 , 31 , 32 ): (Eq 1) d a d N = C ( Δ K ) m...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., leaving pores isolated in the grain interior. At the temperatures typical of sintering, most materials exhibit moderate to high grain growth rates. Any differences in initial grain sizes generate forces on the grain boundaries that cause grain growth. As the temperature is increased, the rate of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... sustained stress are the primary causes of SCC, microstructure and alloy composition may affect the rate of crack propagation in susceptible alloys. Selecting the correct combination of alloy, forming process, thermal treatment, and metal-finishing process can control microstructure and composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , represents the intensification of stress at the tip of a crack of a known size and shape. For more information, refer to the appropriate sections of Fatigue and Fracture , Volume 19 of the ASM Handbook , 1996.) Stage 1 involves a rapidly increasing crack-growth rate once the crack tip stress-intensity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... present. In SMIE, smooth or notched specimens or components, under static loads, exhibit increasing time to failure with decreasing stress and a minimum stress for failure (i.e., a threshold). It has been proposed that crack growth rate in SMIE is controlled by thermally activated surface self...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... characterizes the crack-tip stress field for a cracked body subjected to extensive creep conditions. The model used to estimate creep-fatigue crack growth rates for loading cycles with hold times is given by Eq 8 ( Ref 6 ): (Eq 8) d a d N = c 1 ( Δ K ) n 1 + H...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strength (i.e., creep rate, stress rupture) and resistance to fracture under creep conditions. Fig. 2 Creep crack in a turbine vane. Courtesy of M. Chaudhari, Columbus Metallurgical Services Failures from creep deformation depend on material, time-temperature exposure, loading conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mean stress (stress ratio) has a smaller effect on the rate of crack growth in region 2 compared to region 1. Also, the frequency of cyclic loading and the waveform (sinusoidal, triangular, square, or trapezoidal) do not significantly affect the rate of crack propagation for steels in benign...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... tensile and compressive stresses. Crack propagation tests use a fracture mechanics approach in which the growth of preexisting cracks due to cyclic loading is monitored. A fundamental parameter used to describe a fatigue process in smooth specimens is the stress ratio R , defined as: (Eq 15) R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth and fibrous tearing occur along a crack plane that is essentially normal to the axis of the tensile load. The fracture appearance typically has a dull and fibrous appearance, as in the classic cup-and-cone feature of ductile fracture, along with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... quality at desired production rates. Based on these considerations, heat treatment simulations can be highly beneficial in dealing with the following issues: Achievement of desired microstructure, hardness, and property distributions Elimination of losses by prevention of cracking Reduction of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., elastic or plastic distortion, and fracture. Many elements of fracture have been used to describe and categorize the types of fractures encountered in the laboratory and in service. These elements include loading conditions, rate of crack growth, and macroscopic and microscopic appearance of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
..., usually called protection potential ( E p ) ( Ref 3 ), reducing the rate of dissolution in the pits to values not capable of sustaining the chemistry-changing reactions. The values of the breakdown potential and protection potential are among the most important corrosion test results for passivating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... 35 ). In α and, especially, α-β alloys, hydrogen contents above critical levels can result in sustained-load cracking, which dramatically reduces useful maximum service loads in notched or cracked components under slow strain rate or constant tensile load situations ( Ref 31 , Ref 32 , Ref 33...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...) direction of thick plate, forgings, and extrusions, are subject to intergranular SCC ( Ref 64 ). While this phenomenon has long been studied with tensile loading of smooth specimen subjected to exposure in potentially troublesome environments, it also can be examined in fracture-mechanics terms of the rate...