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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... metallic biomaterials orthopedic surgery stress-corrosion cracking stress-corrosion cracking testing surgical implants susceptibility AS THE FIELD OF BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE proceeds into the 21st century, many changes are taking place. Traditionally, biomaterials have been defined as materials that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract The presence of macroscopic residual stresses in heat treatable aluminum alloys can give rise to machining distortion, dimensional instability, and increased susceptibility to in-service fatigue and stress-corrosion cracking. This article details the residual-stress magnitudes and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... hydrochloric, and some are extremely resistant to the chloride-induced phenomena of pitting, crevice attack, and stress-corrosion cracking (to which the stainless steels are susceptible). Nickel alloys are also among the few metallic materials able to cope with hot hydrofluoric acid. The conditions where...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... describes the corrosion behavior of copper alloys in specific environments. It reviews the corrosion characteristics of copper and copper alloys in various acids, alkalis, salts, organic compounds, and gases. The article provides information on the behavior of copper alloys that is susceptible to stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... determine the susceptibility of alloys to SCC and hydrogen embrittlement, several types of testing are available. This article describes the constant extension testing, constant load testing, constant strain-rate testing for smooth specimens and precracked or notched specimens of SCC. It provides...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003142
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... such as nitric acid. Titanium is subject to crevice corrosion in brine solutions containing oxidizers. Although crevice corrosion of titanium is observed most often in hot chloride solutions, it also occurs in iodide, bromide, and sulfate solutions. Susceptibility increases with increasing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... steels, titanium, Nitinol, and tantalum can be susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement. Several factors must be present for hydrogen embrittlement to occur. First, the device must be exposed to hydrogen atoms during fabrication or service. Only hydrogen atoms enter the crystal lattice, because hydrogen...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., a series of microscopic effects and phenomena play a significant role in hot tearing susceptibility, such as grain morphology, dendrite bridging (coalescence) ( Ref 10 ), the local interplay between the coalescing dendrites and the localized liquid feeding ( Ref 11 ), and the alloy composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... that have been observed on these alloys include general corrosion, crevice corrosion, anodic pitting, hydrogen damage, and stress-corrosion cracking. In any contemplated application of titanium, its susceptibility to degradation by any of these forms of corrosion should be considered. In order to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... saline solutions, alkaline solutions, and organic chemicals. However, copper is susceptible to more rapid attack in oxidizing acids, oxidizing heavy-metal salts, sulfur, ammonia (NH 3 ), and some sulfur and NH 3 compounds. Resistance to acid solution depends mainly on the severity of oxidizing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... intergranular corrosion is involved in SCC of aluminum alloys, it is often presumed to be more deleterious than pitting or general corrosion. However, in alloys that are not susceptible to SCC—for example, the 6 xxx -series alloys—intergranular corrosion is usually no more severe than pitting corrosion, tends...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004012
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... or irregularity of blank diameter and hardness increases susceptibility to spalling, as does contact between the edge thread on the tools and the shoulders and fillets on the workpiece. Mismatching of the tools during rolling imposes transverse loading on the tool threads and causes spalling. When...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in welding stainless steels are the same as those seen in heat treatment. The heat of welding (portions of the base metal adjacent to the weld may be heated to 430 to 870 °C, or 800 to 1600 °F) can cause sensitization and formation of intermetallic phases, thus increasing the susceptibility of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... More concentrated alloys, such as U-6Nb and U-10Mo, require much less severe quenching and thus can be processed in larger sections. Uranium alloys are susceptible to environmental cracking in ionic chloride and other environments. Dilute alloys are also sensitive to hydrogen, which is readily...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... should be kept to a minimum by thoroughly cleaning equipment and providing proper lubrication. Cold formed stainless steel parts usually are used in the as-formed condition. However, for applications in which stress-corrosion cracking can occur, austenitic types susceptible to this failure process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... it hard and possibly susceptible to cracking. Silicon and nickel are thought to be beneficial and enhance resistance to carburization ( Ref 5 ). The martensitic grades include CA-15, CA-15M, CA-6NM, CA-6NM-B, CA-40, CB-7Cu-1, and CB-7Cu-2. These alloys are generally used in applications requiring...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... effects are apparent at copper contents exceeding a few tenths of one percent. In the heat treatable 2 xxx or 2 xx.x alloys with several percent copper, the state of solution or precipitation affects the type of corrosion attack as well as susceptibility to SCC. These effects are recognized in the alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... corrosion resistance. Within each family, there is a range of grades that varies in composition, corrosion resistance, and cost. Stainless steels are susceptible to several forms of localized corrosive attack. The avoidance of such localized corrosion is the focus of most of the effort involved in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... precipitation of chromium-rich carbides, which depletes the grain-boundary regions in chromium essential for passivation and makes them susceptible to dissolution. Galvanic corrosion occurs when two or more dissimilar metals exposed to a common electrolyte are in electrical contact. The short circuit forces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... joint, may enhance the susceptibility of the joint to corrosion. Entrapped flux may lead to high-temperature corrosion, whereas incomplete joining may lead to crevice corrosion. The distribution of the stress as evenly as possible in the joint is also important in joint design. If the stress is...