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surface topography

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Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 19 Surface topography of shot peened workpieces with (a) 6.4 mm ball diameter and 15 m/s ball velocity, and (b) 4.0 mm ball diameter and 12.8 m/s ball velocity. R A , roughness average; R z , ten-point height (roughness average); R max , maximum peak-to-valley roughness height More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract Most surfaces have regular and irregular spacings that tend to form a pattern or texture on the surface. This article provides information on the general background of surface topography and discusses the different methods for measuring surface topography, namely, contact...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of these techniques. The techniques are divided into those that provide insight into surface topography and surface structure, and those that provide understanding of chemical nature and identity. The article presents a list of web sites and print media addressing corrosion and related topics in five different areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
...Abstract Abstract This article begins with the basic concept of friction and with the general approaches that can be used to control or minimize it. It focuses on the factors influencing rolling friction: surface topography, composition, subsurface microstructure, and lubrication conditions...
Image
Published: 15 May 2022
properties of the polymer and the surface topography of the counterface. PE, polyethylene; PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene; UHMWPE, ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene. Reprinted with permission from Ref 1 More
Image
Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 4 Bimodal topography of mechanical surfaces More
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 4 Schematic of bimodal topography of mechanical surfaces. Source: Ref 7 More
Image
Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 5 Topography of silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina surfaces to be joined. (a) Ground, R q of 0.35 μm (14 μin.). (b) Ground/polished, R q of 0.04 μm (1.6 μin.). 3000× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in the topography is neither PS nor PMMA but a foreign object. Four-Dimensional AFM Imaging Typically in an AFM, the probe tracks the surface during a scan. Another dimension that can be examined by the AFM is force interactions of the probe in the vertical direction above the surface, called a force...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of specially formulated high-additive oils, a change in the geometry of the element, the use of surface coatings, an improvement in the surface roughness and topography, or by the generation of a specific surface structure. Any change in the geometry of the element is more or less limited and related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of test geometries are shown in Fig. 5 . Specify the geometry of the test configuration, the bulk materials properties and metallurgical description, and the surface topographies and characteristics (cleaned surfaces before test). Note that the interfacial tribological processes act differently on each...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the use of a shaped electrode for electrical discharge machining (EDM). It describes the operational methodology of the EDM. Topography, metallurgical and chemical effects, and surface integrity of the EDM surface are reviewed. The article provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... The complete name x-ray diffraction topography is a little more informative, indicating that the technique is concerned with the topography of the internal diffracting planes, that is, local changes in spacing and rotations of these planes, rather than with external surface topography. This technique usually...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003527
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... employed in both the field and in the laboratory. Visual Examination Visual Observations Failure analysis is a process centered in visual examination and analysis. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on differences in fracture surface topography, reflectivity, and color...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... crystals, images of individual defects may be obtained and recorded on photographic plates or film. Defects near the surface can be completely characterized and defined using reflection topography (the Bragg case); defects in the bulk can be probed using transmission techniques (the Laue case) ( Fig. 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of plasma surface treatments for plastics. It covers the equipment and methods used in plasma processing, providing detailed explanations of the plasma discharge reactions and how they affect surface state and topography. It also provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... provides high-resolution imaging of fine surface morphology ( Fig. 5 , Fig. 6 , Fig. 7 ). Inelastic electron scattering caused by the interaction between the sample electrons and the incident electrons results in the emission of low-energy electrons from near the sample surface. The topography of surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
...Abstract Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
.... These techniques include edge replication, stiffness measurement, radiography, ultrasonics, acoustic emission, and thermography. Surface or Edge Replication Surface or edge replication is a technique that has found wide application by materials scientists studying surface topography. Because replication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., as shown in Fig. 3(b) , to further measure the three-dimensional (3-D) topography, a point sensor is raster scanned over a surface with two moving axes. Several further effects of 3-D measurement must be considered when analyzing the data. First there is the issue of having an accurate starting point...