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surface topography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Most surfaces have regular and irregular spacings that tend to form a pattern or texture on the surface. This article provides information on the general background of surface topography and discusses the different methods for measuring surface topography, namely, contact and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006644
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... informative, indicating that the technique is concerned with the topography of the internal diffracting planes, that is, local changes in spacing and rotations of these planes, rather than with external surface topography. This technique usually is nondestructive and suitable for imaging single crystals of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of plasma surface treatments for plastics. It covers the equipment and methods used in plasma processing, providing detailed explanations of the plasma discharge reactions and how they affect surface state and topography. It also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... about the sample surface ( Fig. 10 ). The information gathered from the probe interaction with the surface can be as simple as physical topography or as diverse as measurements of the material physical, magnetic, or chemical properties. Physical topography images have excellent resolution in all three...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...) Secondary electron imaging of surface topography: ∼10 nm (same as SEM) Auger electron characterization of elemental chemistry: 10 to 20 nm; sampling depth: ∼1 nm Threshold sensitivity: ∼0.5% Precision of quantitative analyses: ∼10% relative or 0.5% absolute, whichever is greater Cannot...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the classifications, compositions, properties, advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and applications of the most commonly used methods for surface engineering of carbon and alloy steels. These include cleaning methods, finishing methods, conversion coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... surface preparation methods and finishing treatments of coated parts. The article also explains the tests to evaluate the coating quality and the effects of coating structures and mechanical properties on coated parts. It concludes with a discussion on the uses of thermal spray coatings. coating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The purpose of fractography is to analyze fracture features and attempt to relate the topography of the fracture surface to the causes and/or basic mechanisms of fracture. This article reviews the historical development of fractography, from the early studies of fracture appearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surfaces. These techniques provide data about the physical topography, physical properties, chemical composition, and chemical structure of the surfaces under study. Most of these techniques are based on bombarding the surface with species such as photons, x-rays, ions, neutrons, or electrons and analyzing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article discusses the preparation of photomacrographs of fracture surfaces. It provides useful information on the equipment used, such as view cameras, 35-mm single-lens-reflex cameras, and stereomicroscopes. The article describes the role of lenses, focusing, camera magnification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... on the fractal characteristics of the slit-island perimeters. Correlation with the fracture toughness of steels ( Ref 22 ) and brittle ceramics ( Ref 67 ) is claimed. Another method for determining the topography of an irregular surface also uses horizontal sectioning planes. The analysis, although...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the characteristics of the generated surfaces and the methods used to measure them. “Topography of Surface.” One of the key characteristics of generated surfaces is the topography. Many contact and noncontact methods are used to measure surfaces, and a number of parameters are used to describe...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... need to be matched to the specimen for best results, and stereographic pairs are extremely helpful in revealing the surface topography. Fractography should be well documented with notes, sketches, and photographs. In 1992, the U.S. Department of Defense released MIL-HDBK-790, a handbook that provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000621
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... electrical potential of −1.200 mV (versus −0.700 mV for the specimen in Fig. 1048 ). Surface shows brittle striations with typical topography; no evidence of striation fissures. See also Fig. 1050 . SEM, 640× Fig. 1050 Corrosion-fatigue fracture in a specimen of aluminum alloy 7075-T6 that, like...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. Failure analysis information gathering begins with visual examination. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on fracture surface topography, repeated fracture surface features, reflectivity, and color characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., including galling, increases with surface roughness ( Ref 170 , 171 ). There are clear indications that the roughness and topography of the harder surface, even at the nano level, are the major factors in causing transfer from a softer countersurface ( Ref 172 ). However, the more difficult the material is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... additional work involved in placing and removing the molds. Restrictions on the surface topography require that no abrupt changes in contour occur to prevent slipping or bridging of the fiber ( Fig. 6 ). Wind angle, ramp angles of a discontinuity, and friction coefficient between the fiber being wound on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specimens 50 mm (2 in.) in diameter and 10 mm (0.4 in.) thick, all made from CGI of the same composition. The surface of each specimen was ground to maintain constant surface topography, with a roughness average ( R a ) of approximately 0.5 μm. Chrome steel balls, 15 mm (0.6 in.) in diameter, were used as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article examines the deformation processes in metal-forming operations and considers the effects introduced by scale factors when microforming. It discusses the process parameters and variables affecting surface interactions, including temperature, speed, reduction, stiffness, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000623
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of titanium alloys and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the fracture surface, fatigue crack growth, intergranular...